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关于法律翻译的一个问题
Thread poster: jingmlittlejohn

jingmlittlejohn  Identity Verified
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Aug 7, 2015

相信这个问题大家在做法律翻译的时候都碰到过。

在翻译协议或合同(英文翻成中文)的时候,常常会遇到首字母大写的词条,例如“Defendant”、“Person”等等。以前一直是直接翻译,也没有做特殊处理(例如加下划线或加双引号),主要是注意保持整个文档中这些词的翻译一致。但是最近翻译一份协议,其在开头处做出明确说明:all capitalized terms are as defined in Section **. 这句话翻译起来不难,但中文译文中这些词条不再是capitalized。想问问大家对这种情况是怎么处理的?


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Frank Lin  Identity Verified
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两个选择 Aug 7, 2015

Capitalized Terms翻译时可以相应处理为:

1. 加粗/下划线/双引号词语;(前提是译文中词语均已做相应处理)

2. 英文版首字母大写的词语;(前提是译文中词语未做相应处理)


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ysun  Identity Verified
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赞成第1种处理方法 Aug 7, 2015

Frank Lin wrote:

Capitalized Terms翻译时可以相应处理为:

1. 加粗/下划线/双引号词语;(前提是译文中词语均已做相应处理)

2. 英文版首字母大写的词语;(前提是译文中词语未做相应处理)

赞成第1种处理方法。在一般情况下,中文版读者不会去看英文版,所以第2种处理方法欠佳。


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Phil Hand  Identity Verified
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可以考虑 Aug 7, 2015

于第xx条加以定义的专用词,应一律按第xx条中的定义理解

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jingmlittlejohn  Identity Verified
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Awesome! I like your style。 Aug 7, 2015

Phil Hand wrote:

于第xx条加以定义的专用词,应一律按第xx条中的定义理解


乍一看你的解釋,我還在想,你說的是什麼意思?細看兩遍,發現,這個翻譯方式絕了!要不然的話,整篇翻譯都要加引號或下劃線,其它相關的文檔也要做處理,就太麻煩了。謝謝,謝謝!


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jingmlittlejohn  Identity Verified
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謝謝! Aug 7, 2015

Frank Lin wrote:

Capitalized Terms翻译时可以相应处理为:

1. 加粗/下划线/双引号词语;(前提是译文中词语均已做相应处理)

2. 英文版首字母大写的词语;(前提是译文中词语未做相应处理)


謝謝你的建議!我最初想到的也是第一種方法,但還有其它的相關文稿的翻譯已經定稿,也出現了這些詞語,要是使用第一種方法的話太麻煩了。不過你的建議對我以後翻譯類似文稿很有幫助,謝謝!


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jyuan_us  Identity Verified
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Ii think you can simply tell the client that there is no such a thing of letter capitalization Aug 7, 2015

in Chinese.

I don't think you need to underline, boldface, italicize things like "Party A" or "Party B". The readers are not stupid anyway.

I think the writers of the source text use these "formatting tools" simply because they think the readers are stupid.


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ysun  Identity Verified
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不应嫌麻烦 Aug 7, 2015

jingmlittlejohn wrote:

Frank Lin wrote:

Capitalized Terms翻译时可以相应处理为:

1. 加粗/下划线/双引号词语;(前提是译文中词语均已做相应处理)

2. 英文版首字母大写的词语;(前提是译文中词语未做相应处理)


謝謝你的建議!我最初想到的也是第一種方法,但還有其它的相關文稿的翻譯已經定稿,也出現了這些詞語,要是使用第一種方法的話太麻煩了。不過你的建議對我以後翻譯類似文稿很有幫助,謝謝!

法律文件十分严格。原文作者不厌其烦地采用 Capitalized Terms 并加以定义,就是为了赋予其特定含义。这种做法是基于长期的经验教训,甚至于惨痛的经验教训。因此,翻译人员也应不厌其烦。例如,“Person” 肯定是指特定的“Person”,而不是指任何 person。在相应的中译文上加上引号,能有多麻烦?已经定稿的文件中,即使这类专用词语重复出现了几十遍、上百遍,也可采用 find/replace 的方法很容易地加以改正。

当然,这只是我个人的拙见,仅供参考。


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Rita Pang  Identity Verified
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Do both. Aug 7, 2015

Do what the above has suggested (either bold/italicize/ask reader to refer to Article XYZ...) AND then inform your client as jyuan has mentioned.

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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Legalese Aug 8, 2015

ysun wrote:

jingmlittlejohn wrote:

Frank Lin wrote:

Capitalized Terms翻译时可以相应处理为:

1. 加粗/下划线/双引号词语;(前提是译文中词语均已做相应处理)

2. 英文版首字母大写的词语;(前提是译文中词语未做相应处理)


謝謝你的建議!我最初想到的也是第一種方法,但還有其它的相關文稿的翻譯已經定稿,也出現了這些詞語,要是使用第一種方法的話太麻煩了。不過你的建議對我以後翻譯類似文稿很有幫助,謝謝!

法律文件十分严格。原文作者不厌其烦地采用 Capitalized Terms 并加以定义,就是为了赋予其特定含义。这种做法是基于长期的经验教训,甚至于惨痛的经验教训。因此,翻译人员也应不厌其烦。例如,“Person” 肯定是指特定的“Person”,而不是指任何 person。在相应的中译文上加上引号,能有多麻烦?已经定稿的文件中,即使这类专用词语重复出现了几十遍、上百遍,也可采用 find/replace 的方法很容易地加以改正。

当然,这只是我个人的拙见,仅供参考。


I agree with Yueyin.

Since it is a legal document, everything has to be precise. One of the reasons legal documents employ legalese is exactly because they require precision.

IMO, to not specifically identify each intentionally capitalized term in some way at each of its occurrence in the document could very well alter the legal content.

The reference to the Corporation would be different than the generic reference to a corporation; for example, wording such as “The Corporation, just like any other corporation, ...”.


Another example:

For all purposes of this Agreement(这个协议
... until A and B reach an agreement (达成协议)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emphasis_(typography)

Underlining
Professional Western typesetting usually does not employ lines under letters for emphasis within running text, because it is considered too distracting. Underlining is, however, often used with typewriters, in handwriting and with some non-alphabetic scripts. It is also used for secondary emphasis, i.e. marks added by the reader and not the author.
...

Punctuation marks
In Chinese, emphasis in body text is supposed to be indicated by using an “emphasis mark” (着重號), which is a dot placed under each character to be emphasized. This is still taught in schools but in practice it is not usually done, probably due to the difficulty of doing this using most computer software. Consequently, methods used for emphasis in Western text are often used instead, even though they are considered inappropriate for Chinese (for example, the use of underlining or setting text in oblique type).
...

In Internet usage, asterisks are sometimes used for emphasis (as in “That was *really* bad”). This is seen on sites where input is restricted to plain text with no method to apply markup tags (e.g. < i> for italics, or < b> for boldface). In some cases, the engine behind the text area being parsed will render the text and the asterisks in bold automatically after the text is submitted.




[Edited at 2015-08-08 23:01 GMT]


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QHE
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“Find and Replace” Aug 8, 2015

You could easily format all designated terms by using “Find and Replace” function in Office Word.

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ysun  Identity Verified
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Precision Aug 11, 2015

wherestip wrote:

Since it is a legal document, everything has to be precise. One of the reasons legal documents employ legalese is exactly because they require precision.

IMO, to not specifically identify each intentionally capitalized term in some way at each of its occurrence in the document could very well alter the legal content.

Steve,

我完全同意你的意见。法律文件讲究严格、精确,就是为了防人钻空子,并非是作者没事找事、故弄玄虚。

此链接上的协议就是很好的一例:
http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/934563/000119312515135614/d912274dex99h7.htm

此协议作者在 Definition 部分对许多 capitalized terms 都下了严格的定义。例如:
Agreement” means the Service Agreement to which this Schedule 1 is attached and any appendices and schedules attached hereto, in each case as they may be amended from time to time.

在上下文中,大多数 agreement 的首字母都是大写的A。但也有一些 agreement 的首字母仍是小写。所以,在中译文中就应设法体现出两者之间的区别,例如加引号的“协议”和不加引号的“协议”。否则,读者就难以区分哪些是 Definition 部分予以定义的 “协议”,哪些只是一般意义上的“协议”。其他某些术语,如 services、customers 和 person等,也是这种情况。

此外,此协议中的有些句子全部采用 capitalized words,例如:
(iv) EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS AGREEMENT, SERVICE PROVIDER HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, MADE TO THE CLIENT OR ANY OTHER PERSON, INCLUDING ...

作者是为了强调这些句子。因此,在中译文中,就有必要给这些句子加下划线,以提醒读者注意。


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ysun  Identity Verified
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Local time: 06:10
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中文的“大写” Aug 11, 2015

中文里并不是没有大写,但大写的含义略有不同。例如:

英文:The amount is 13,408 USD (say: thirteen thousand four hundred and eight U.S. dollars only)
中文:金额为 13,408 美元(大写:壹萬叁仟肆佰零捌美元整)

不过,这种“大写”的目的也是为了使法律文件(如合同)更为严格。例如,若将圣旨写成“传位拾肆子”,别人就无法将其篡改成“传位于四子”了。


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Great Example Aug 11, 2015

ysun wrote:

此链接上的协议就是很好的一例:
http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/934563/000119312515135614/d912274dex99h7.htm

此协议作者在 Definition 部分对许多 capitalized terms 都下了严格的定义。例如:
Agreement” means the Service Agreement to which this Schedule 1 is attached and any appendices and schedules attached hereto, in each case as they may be amended from time to time.

在上下文中,大多数 agreement 的首字母都是大写的A。但也有一些 agreement 的首字母仍是小写。所以,在中译文中就应设法体现出两者之间的区别,例如加引号的“协议”和不加引号的“协议”。否则,读者就难以区分哪些是 Definition 部分予以定义的 “协议”,哪些只是一般意义上的“协议”。其他某些术语,如 services、customers 和 person等,也是这种情况。



Yueyin,

I am simply floored. How do you do it? I know firsthand that it is extremely time-consuming to search for examples like this.


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Instances of non-capitalized terms throughout the doc that happen to be in the definition section Aug 11, 2015

ysun wrote:


在上下文中,大多数 agreement 的首字母都是大写的A。但也有一些 agreement 的首字母仍是小写。所以,在中译文中就应设法体现出两者之间的区别,例如加引号的“协议”和不加引号的“协议”。否则,读者就难以区分哪些是 Definition 部分予以定义的 “协议”,哪些只是一般意义上的“协议”。其他某些术语,如 services、customers 和 person等,也是这种情况



That is so true.

There are clearly such definitions made in the definition section of this document:

“Person”        means any natural person or incorporated or unincorporated entity.

“Customer”    means any Person who is a shareholder of the Client.

“Services”      means the services set forth in Schedule 2 to the Agreement.

Yet there are numerous places in the body of the document where these defined terms intentionally do NOT get capitalized, such as:

… incurred by the Service Provider or such person in any action or proceeding between …

Its shareholders are not customers of the Service Provider by virtue of this Agreement;

… to continue to provide transfer agency services to the Client in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.


[Edited at 2015-08-12 11:44 GMT]


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