Zhoudan and Yueyin are entirely correct that you should reference a style guide.
Grammar Girl has an episode specifically addressing some of the issues you raised. She also states that there are no hard-and-fast rules on some fine points. They often depend on the style a publishing house favors.
Much of This Comes Down to Style
A final note: Many of the points I've covered are style issues, meaning that I've run across multiple books and online style guides that make different recommendations. My recommendations are based on my assessment after checking about 20 different grammar handbooks and style guides and on what seems logical to me. For example, I didn't find any source that discussed how to order items in a bulleted list, so I made up the recommendation to write them alphabetically because it seems to be the best solution. However, if your organization has a designated style guide, be sure to check it to see if your house style differs from any of my recommendations.
Here's a link to that episode ...