Syntax: parts of the sentence
Thread poster: Alexander Mynzak

Alexander Mynzak
Local time: 18:00
English to Ukrainian
+ ...
Mar 11, 2013

I am now writing my thesis dedicated to English legal antonyms. In one of the chapters I have decided to dwell upon the syntactic structure of sentences which include antonyms. I thought I knew some English syntax. The idea is actually very simple: to determine the syntactic function (Subject, Object, Attribute etc.) of antonyms in one single sentence, e.g:

that the Y company acted with the lawful object of protecting and extending their trade and the means used were not unlawful

so I believe that lawful and unlawful are attributes in the above mentioned context! ?

However, it is easier said than done, e.g:
By the Legitimacy Act, 1926, an illegitimate person is legitimated by the marriage of their parents provided that at the date of the marriage
Here the antonymous notions are presented by distinct parts of speech, but I still need to determine the part of speech - Subject and Predicate ?
Another illustration: However, both of the above technology standards are performance standards, meaning that the permittee must achieve certain limitations, but the CWA does not require a permittee to use a specific, designated technology to do so.
Here - Subject and Object .... I have no clue .... correct me and/or give me some literature to read up

Thanks


 

Phil Hand  Identity Verified
China
Local time: 23:00
Chinese to English
Attribute? Mar 11, 2013

If you're writing a thesis, then you should be past the point where questions like this make any sense. There is not one English "syntax", there are several different theories of English syntax, and you need to specify which one you're working with in order for us to be able to help you.

In SFG, the word "lawful" looks like a classifier. In GB they'd be adjectives. In traditional Latin-based grammars, they'd be called adjectives as well.

In your last example, the first permittee is the subject of its clause; the second is the object of require and the subject of use.


 

Alexander Mynzak
Local time: 18:00
English to Ukrainian
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
syntax Mar 11, 2013

thanks for your reply ... I have to follow the following syntax pattern: Subject - Object - Predicate - Attribute - Adverbial Modifier, which more resembles Post-Soviet Linguistic tradition. It seems "adjectives" are part of speech ... i am looking for parts of sentence only. The notions of "object of require and the subject of use." are totally new to me.

 

Alexander Mynzak
Local time: 18:00
English to Ukrainian
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
attribute Mar 11, 2013

Attribute = classifier. Just another term, I believe

 

James McVay  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 11:00
Russian to English
+ ...
Suggesting an academic resource Mar 11, 2013

If you aren't already familiar with M. Y. Blokh's book "A Course in Theoretical English Grammar," you might want to follow this link: http://www.homeenglish.ru/Textblokh.htm. You can download it there for free.

 

LilianNekipelov  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 11:00
Russian to English
+ ...
Hi, yes you are mostly right, although this kind of language is rarely used in the English grammar Mar 11, 2013

Alexander Mynzak wrote:

I am now writing my thesis dedicated to English legal antonyms. In one of the chapters I have decided to dwell upon the syntactic structure of sentences which include antonyms. I thought I knew some English syntax. The idea is actually very simple: to determine the syntactic function (Subject, Object, Attribute etc.) of antonyms in one single sentence, e.g:

that the Y company acted with the lawful object of protecting and extending their trade and the means used were not unlawful

so I believe that lawful and unlawful are attributes in the above mentioned context! ?

However, it is easier said than done, e.g:
By the Legitimacy Act, 1926, an illegitimate person is legitimated by the marriage of their parents provided that at the date of the marriage
Here the antonymous notions are presented by distinct parts of speech, but I still need to determine the part of speech - Subject and Predicate ?
Another illustration: However, both of the above technology standards are performance standards, meaning that the permittee must achieve certain limitations, but the CWA does not require a permittee to use a specific, designated technology to do so.
Here - Subject and Object .... I have no clue .... correct me and/or give me some literature to read up

Thanks



Lawful and unlawful -- are adjectives here, or otherwise attributes (they modify different nouns, though, here)

Legitimate person -- legitimate is an adjective, or an attribute. Legitimized is a past participle -- it is not an attribute. It is a part of the verb (compound verb made of a linking verb "to be" and a past participle legitimated. Permittee -- the first one is the subject, and the second one is an object.


 

Phil Hand  Identity Verified
China
Local time: 23:00
Chinese to English
Different traditions... Mar 12, 2013

Alexander Mynzak wrote:

thanks for your reply ... I have to follow the following syntax pattern: Subject - Object - Predicate - Attribute - Adverbial Modifier, which more resembles Post-Soviet Linguistic tradition. It seems "adjectives" are part of speech ... i am looking for parts of sentence only. The notions of "object of require and the subject of use." are totally new to me.


It's hard to communicate between different academic traditions! I have no idea what "parts of the sentence" means - presumably it refers to a more functional approach, as opposed to the more formal approach of parts of speech... yes, Google says that's right. Personally, I don't have much truck with the functional traditions, but never mind.

So, I'd guess that "attribute" is any word or phrase that modifies a noun - sorry! modifies a subject or object (you start to see why I prefer formal approaches, they're just more parsimonious). Predicate I guess means verb or complement...

Anyway, what I said above just lacked quotation marks:

the second instance of "permittee" in your example sentence is the object of the the predicate "require" and the subject of the predicate "use". It occupies a famously hard-to-parse position in English, working as both a subject and an object at the same time. Different grammars analyse it in different ways. You'll have to consult your nearest textbook to find out what your teachers want to call it.


 


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Syntax: parts of the sentence

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