Thread poster: Ibrahim Sanad

Ibrahim Sanad  Identity Verified
Local time: 04:38
Member (2016)
English to Arabic
Feb 11, 2018

Every language is unique. Even if a feature exists in two languages, that does not mean that it functions the same way in both languages.
1. Introduce determiners and التعريف والتنكير
2. Identify the rules governing the use of articles in English
3. Translate into Ar/Eng. Sentences that showcase the difference in how this feature functions in the two languages

ينقسم الاسم في اللغة العربية إلى:
نكرة: كل اسم يدل على غير معين مثل: إنسان – أسد – زهرة
معرفة: كل اسم يدل على معين مثل: محمد – الإنسان – هذا الأسد – زهرة البنفسج

اللغة العربية كلها نكرات ما عدا سبعة أنواع ونلاحظ أن من علامات النكرة التنوين؛ أي أن المعارف لا تنوَّن ما عدا اسم العلم، فهذا ينوَّن ويجوز أن نقول محمدٌ ومحمدًا ومحمدٍ
أنواع المعرفة سبعة وهي:
1. الضمير – أنا المدرس
2. العلم – محمد حضر – بورسعيد مدينة ساحلية
3. اسم الإشارة – هذا قلمي
4. الاسم الموصول – العربة التي ارتطمت بالشجرة
5. المعرف بأل
6. المضاف إلى معرفة – كتاب التاريخ
7. المنادى – يا ولد

Determiners go before nouns. There are four kinds of determiners:
● Articles (a, an, the)
● Quantifiers (a lot of, a few, some, etc.)
● Demonstrative Adjectives (this, that, these, those)
● Possessive Adjectives (my, your, his, etc.)

Today, we will focus on the use of articles
11% of ESL mistakes are misuses of articles
There are 3 cases
● Zero article
● Indefinite articles (a/an)
● Definite article (the)

Let’s start with a quick capsule
Ø a/an Plural (s) Some
Book x ✔ ✔ ✔ (i.e. not all)
Milk ✔ x x ✔ (i.e. little)

Now, let’s take a closer look...
I use an oil that is good for the car engine.
أستخدم أحد أنواع الزيوت الجيدة لمحرك السيارة.
An indefinite article before an uncountable noun could mean, a type of, a kind of, a unit of, …
تسعى الحكومة لتخفيف المعاناة عن المعاقين
The government tries to alleviate the suffering of the differently abled.
Use the definite article “the” to refer to a class of people

A: I met Tom Cruise
قابلت توم كروز
B: The Tom Cruise!
الممثل الشهير توم كروز!
Use the definite article “the” for emphasis or to express fame

A Shakespeare is performed on stage.
تُعرض إحدى مسرحيات شكسبير على المشرح.
Use an indefinite article to refer to an item/product of a brand or a famous person
It costs sixty pounds a kilo.
There are 5 patterns of generalization in English:
a) No article PLUS plural count noun: Schools should concentrate less on exams.
b) No article PLUS noncount noun: Life is hard.
c) Indefinite article PLUS singular count noun: A child needs plenty of love.
d) Definite article PLUS singular count noun: It's astonishing what the gymnast can do.
e) Definite article PLUS plural nationality noun: The Chinese have an ancient culture.

Art forms and professions Vs. forms of entertainment
● I always listen to the radio while I’m driving.
دائمًا ما أستمع إلى الراديو وأنا أقود السيارة.
● He worked on radio and TV all his life.
عمل في الإذاعة والتليفزيون طوال حياته.
نستخدم THE عندما نتحدث عن نشاط ترفيهي. أما إذا كان الحديث عن مجال العمل أو تخصص فلا نستخدم THE.

Articles and geography

Zero article The definite article “the”
Continents: Africa
Countries (except group countries, the Sudan and the Yemen)
Towns and streets: Cairo – Johnson street
Lakes: lake Geneva – lake Naser
Most names of single mountains: Everest
Places, buildings and means of transportation
Seasons, months & days: Compass/globe points & areas: the Equator
Collective Countries: the United Kingdom – the Netherlands
Island groups: the Canary Islands
Oceans, seas & rivers: the Pacific – the Mediterranean, the Nile
Mountain ranges: the Alps
Deserts: the Sahara
Names of most theatres, cinemas and hotels
Physical topography

Can you explain the difference?
● Who smokes in class?
من منكم مدخن في الفصل؟
● Who smokes in the class?
من يدخن في الفصل الآن؟
نستخدم THE مع الأماكن للدلالة على عدم الاستخدام للغرض المخصص له إذ من المفترض أن الفصل ليس مكانًا للتدخين.
● What’s on T.V.?
ما الذي يُعرض على التليفزيون؟
● What’s on the T.V.?
ما الموجود فوق التليفزيون؟
● I met him in prison.
قابلته في السجن (تعني أن المتحدث والمقصود بالكلام كانا مسجونين)
● I met him at the prison.
قابلته في مبنى السجن.

Now let’s practice...
يعزف على آلة الكمان.
He plays the violin. (Use THE with musical instruments)
يعد الحوت الأبيض من الحيوانات المهددة بالانقراض.
The White whale is endangered animal. (Use THE to indicate animal family)
يُصدَّر القطن المصري إلى العديد من البلدان.
The Egyptian cotton is exported to many countries. (THE + Nationality = Generalization).
شربت قهوة بعد الإفطار.
I had coffee after breakfast.
الابن الأكبر موضع اهتمام والديه.
The first child takes the care of their parents.
رُبَّ فقير ودود خير من غني فظ.
A friendly poor may be better than rude rich.

The English are very conservative.
يتصف الإنجليز بالتحفظ الشديد.
Have you met the Howards?
هل قابلت عائلة هوارد؟ (THE + Proper Name = Family)
A Mr. Andrews called you.
Let’s meet in front of the college.
There is a movie on the life of Einstein on TV.


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