use of hyphen

English translation: yes

10:48 Jul 27, 2006
English to English translations [PRO]
Linguistics / general grammar
English term or phrase: use of hyphen
I have some doubts about using term "industry-based projects" - should the hyphen be used? The term describes projects assigned to students during their course where they work for a client in the industry relevant to their course.
So should it be "industry-based projects" or "industry based projects"? Any suggestions and advice is appreciated.
Lubosh Hanuska
Local time: 06:33
English translation:yes
Explanation:
The hyphen should be used. "Industry-based" the modifier (in l. adjective) for projects.


In most cases, use a hyphen between words or between abbreviations and words combined to form a unit modifier that precedes the word modified. This applies particularly to combinations in which one element is a present or past participle.

Minneapolis-St. Paul airport
thought-provoking argument
second-quarter sophomore
U.S.-flag ship
up-to-date information
(but information that is up to date)


Hyphenate compounds that include well- and ill- when they precede the noun. Do not hyphenate if the expression carries a modifier.

a well-known woman
(but a very well known woman)


Use a hyphen when confusion could exist between a modifier and the word it modifies.

a light (weight) green jacket/a light-green (color) jacket
a new book sale/a new-book sale


Use hyphens where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common basic element that is omitted in one or more of the terms.

three- or four-member committee
seaweed- and barnacle-covered ships (not seaweed and barnacle-covered ships)
a student-owned and -operated radio station


Do not use a hyphen in a two-word modifier if the first clement is a comparative or superlative.

upper division courses
better paid worker
best liked films
higher income bracket


Do not use a hyphen to form a temporary compound if the meaning is clear and readability is not aided by adding one. Refrain from forming hyphenated compounds when the words are used in normal sequence.

chemical dependency program
interior design certificate
health care institution
world affairs center


Do not hyphenate -ly phrases.

severely injured patients
unusually accurate predictions


Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a foreign phrase.

a priori knowledge
bona fide original


Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a letter or a numeral as its second clement.

grade A cultured buttermilk
section 2 beds of the prison

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NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS

Use a hyphen between the elements of compound numbers from 21 to 99 (when they are spelled out).

Fifty-three percent of the students polled agreed.
March the first, nineteen hundred and seventy-nine


Use a hyphen in adjectival compounds with a numerical first element. Do not use a hyphen with numerical compounds used as nouns.

10-hour day
20th-century novel
The 31st precinct was the most liberal.


Use a hyphen with the symbols for chemical elements used in combination with figures. Do not use a hyphen with superior figures or when the element name is spelled out.

U-235
uranium 235
U 235
235U


Do not use a hyphen with spelled out fractions used as nouns. Hyphenate spelled out fractions used as adjectives.

three fourths of an inch
two-thirds majority
Selected response from:

Elena Petelos
United Kingdom
Local time: 20:33
Grading comment
Thanks, this will become a great resource for me in the future!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +22yes
Elena Petelos


  

Answers


6 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +22
yes


Explanation:
The hyphen should be used. "Industry-based" the modifier (in l. adjective) for projects.


In most cases, use a hyphen between words or between abbreviations and words combined to form a unit modifier that precedes the word modified. This applies particularly to combinations in which one element is a present or past participle.

Minneapolis-St. Paul airport
thought-provoking argument
second-quarter sophomore
U.S.-flag ship
up-to-date information
(but information that is up to date)


Hyphenate compounds that include well- and ill- when they precede the noun. Do not hyphenate if the expression carries a modifier.

a well-known woman
(but a very well known woman)


Use a hyphen when confusion could exist between a modifier and the word it modifies.

a light (weight) green jacket/a light-green (color) jacket
a new book sale/a new-book sale


Use hyphens where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common basic element that is omitted in one or more of the terms.

three- or four-member committee
seaweed- and barnacle-covered ships (not seaweed and barnacle-covered ships)
a student-owned and -operated radio station


Do not use a hyphen in a two-word modifier if the first clement is a comparative or superlative.

upper division courses
better paid worker
best liked films
higher income bracket


Do not use a hyphen to form a temporary compound if the meaning is clear and readability is not aided by adding one. Refrain from forming hyphenated compounds when the words are used in normal sequence.

chemical dependency program
interior design certificate
health care institution
world affairs center


Do not hyphenate -ly phrases.

severely injured patients
unusually accurate predictions


Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a foreign phrase.

a priori knowledge
bona fide original


Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a letter or a numeral as its second clement.

grade A cultured buttermilk
section 2 beds of the prison

Back to Top


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS

Use a hyphen between the elements of compound numbers from 21 to 99 (when they are spelled out).

Fifty-three percent of the students polled agreed.
March the first, nineteen hundred and seventy-nine


Use a hyphen in adjectival compounds with a numerical first element. Do not use a hyphen with numerical compounds used as nouns.

10-hour day
20th-century novel
The 31st precinct was the most liberal.


Use a hyphen with the symbols for chemical elements used in combination with figures. Do not use a hyphen with superior figures or when the element name is spelled out.

U-235
uranium 235
U 235
235U


Do not use a hyphen with spelled out fractions used as nouns. Hyphenate spelled out fractions used as adjectives.

three fourths of an inch
two-thirds majority


Example sentence(s):
  • http://www1.umn.edu/urelate/style/hyphens.html
Elena Petelos
United Kingdom
Local time: 20:33
Native speaker of: Greek
PRO pts in category: 12
Grading comment
Thanks, this will become a great resource for me in the future!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Nesrin: WOW
1 min
  -> :)

agree  Rachel Fell
2 mins
  -> :)

agree  Mark Nathan: impressive
3 mins
  -> :)

agree  French Foodie: definitely a hyphen
4 mins
  -> :)

agree  Alison Jenner: great (and extensive!) explanation
7 mins
  -> Thank you! :)

agree  Nick Lingris: Excellent source and very good examples. See also: 6.15 in http://frwebgate2.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdo...
10 mins
  -> Danke! :)

agree  Vicky Papaprodromou: :-)))
17 mins
  -> :)))

agree  Refugio: Although a hyphen is now sometimes omitted in such an adjectival phrase through laziness, it is really needed most of the time to make the meaning clear.
1 hr
  -> Thanks!

agree  Caryl Swift: And I agree with Nesrin - WOW! :-)
1 hr
  -> :) Very kind of you. Thank you!

agree  Sven Petersson
1 hr
  -> :)

agree  Peter Shortall
1 hr
  -> :)

agree  Jack Doughty
1 hr
  -> :)

agree  Alfa Trans (X)
2 hrs
  -> :)

agree  María Teresa Taylor Oliver: Great explanation, no room for doubt! And thanks for the link :D
3 hrs
  -> Pleasure! (...and many thanks!) :)

agree  jccantrell: Wow! all that for the tiny hyphen. But yes, as a single modifier, you get the hyphen for no extra cost.
3 hrs
  -> :))))

agree  NancyLynn
4 hrs
  -> :))

agree  Suzan Hamer: and with all the other comments.
4 hrs
  -> Thanks!

agree  conejo
6 hrs
  -> :)

agree  Yavor Dimitrov
7 hrs
  -> :

agree  Tony M: Well done! ... except I've forgotten what the original question was now...
10 hrs
  -> :) You....! :))))

agree  Zhuoqi Mills (X)
2 days 9 hrs
  -> :)

agree  Richard Benham: I would say a "US-flagged ship" rather than a "US-flag" ship.
120 days
  -> ;-)
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