योगासन, योगाभ्यास, योगविद्या
What is called yoga in English is referred to in Hindi as योगाभ्यास, योगविद्या, योगासन, योगकला, हठयोग, etc. The word योग has different meanings in Hindi and is not normally used for referring to yoga. Here are some of the meanings:
1. the mathematical operation of addition
3. providence (sometimes संयोग as also योग)
So use one of the above terms for yoga in Hindi and not योग, as this will lead to confusion.
Note added at 5 घंटे (2008-10-07 08:27:23 GMT)
Here are some points that you can mention to your "knowledgeable" persons:
Sanskrit is a north Indian language which flourished on the banks of the Indus and the Ganga, an area which extends from Afghanistan to Bengal, and from the Himalayas to the Vindhyas. This area was known in Vedic times as Aryavarta and in the times of the Muslims as Hindustan. This area is currently the geographic footprint of Hindi. Since Sankrit is a north Indian language with its centres of excellence in Kashi, Prayag, Haridwar, etc., one can take it that what the north Indians say about Hindi or Sankrit is authentic.
I am no scholar of Sanskrit, but I know that in Sanskrit, nouns generally end in a visarga (रामः, etc). This is pronounced as ramaha. Hindi has a lot of Sanskrit words in its vocabulary, but when these words come into Hindi, rules of Hindi grammar and diction apply. One such rule is that the visarga is omitted and the remaining word is taken in. So रामः becomes राम.
The southern languages too have a lot of Sanskrit words, especially Malayalam. Again the rules of these languages apply on the Sankrit words that they have imported into their languages. There ramaha is imported as rama. In the case of Malayalam it is written as राम, but the vyanjan म (as well as all other vyanjans) is pronounced as मा in Malayalam. So we have Ramayana, Mahabharata, yoga, etc. in these languages, but in Hindi we have ramayan, mahabharat, yog.
These spellings have nothing to do with Sanskrit, Sanskrit is a separate language with its own grammar and spelling rules. Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, etc., are independant langugaes with their own rules of spelling and grammar.
A word is to be judged currect or wrong on the basis of the rules of the grammar of the language in which it is used. So राम is correct in Hindi, रामः in Sanskrit.
So your "knowledgeable" persons prove to be quite unknowledgable about Sanskrit or Indian languages. The word योग: will be pronounced as yogaha by anyone who knows Sanskrit properly, whether he is from north or South, Germany or Russia. It will be prounounced as योग (yog) if it is spoken by a Hindi person and as a Hindi word. The same word, when spoken by a Malayalam speaking person as a Malayalam word will be spoken as yoga, although it will be written in Malayalam script as योग only.
For greater understanding of the intricate links between Hindi, Sanskrit and other Indian languages, I advise you as well as your "knowledgable" friends to reads the books of Dr. Ramvilas Sharma, particularly his three-volume magnum opus, भारतीय भाषा परिवार. It is published by Vani Prakashan/Rajkamal Prakashan, New Delhi.
Local time: 19:37
Works in field
Native speaker of: Hindi
PRO pts in category: 4