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الاستخذاء

English translation: subservience, submission, meekness

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Arabic term or phrase:الاستخذاء
English translation:subservience, submission, meekness
Entered by: Mr. Mukhtar
Options:
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21:00 Nov 11, 2013
Arabic to English translations [PRO]
Religion /
Arabic term or phrase: الاستخذاء
علم الاستخذاء والاستنعاج
alishah63
Local time: 13:54
subservience, submission, meekness
Explanation:
http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=arabic&lang_name=عر...
Selected response from:

Mr. Mukhtar
Egypt
Grading comment
Thank you Mr. Mukhtar for your help
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +3subservience, submission, meekness
Mr. Mukhtar
4 +3slavish submissiveness
R Farhat
1 +2Servility
Linda Al-Bairmani
Summary of reference entries provided
http://www.jazeeratalarab.com/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A/itemlist/user/68-%D8%
Firas Allouzi

  

Answers


6 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5 peer agreement (net): +2
Servility


Explanation:
Just a guess


    Reference: http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=arabic&lang_name=%D...
    Reference: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/servility
Linda Al-Bairmani
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Local time: 14:54
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 8

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Firas Allouzi
16 mins

agree  Mr. Mukhtar
49 mins
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12 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
subservience, submission, meekness


Explanation:
http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=arabic&lang_name=عر...

Mr. Mukhtar
Egypt
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Thank you Mr. Mukhtar for your help

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Linda Al-Bairmani
8 mins
  -> Many thanks!

agree  Firas Allouzi
11 mins
  -> Many thanks!

agree  Doaa ALnajjar: http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=arabic&word=خضوع&la...
19 mins
  -> Many thanks!
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9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
الاســتخـذاء
slavish submissiveness


Explanation:


Your question is categorized under Religion and the title is عِلم كذا وكذا
Based on this, I would assume your text is probably related to something like 'مبحث من مباحث نقد أو تقريع ’تطويع الفقه لغرض معيّن (this is my understanding, not a formal subject title).
Such studies look into/criticize the deliberate employment of certain verses and narratives in the service of the powers that be.
This is an abstract brief explanation, as these are actual research topics under debates in 'Fiqh and Politics'. But my words here are 'general' (as a reader, not a specialist scholar) in approaching the term. This is 'not' a referenced material. You can seek references in published books or reviewed essays on relevant subjects, per the particular doctrine of your text in question.

There is some socio-political topic that we may call مبحث الخنوع which can possibly translate as 'Studies/Essays in Subservience'.
The word الخنوع in this context relates to both الرضا بالذل والهوان، وهو الاستخذاء؛ واستضعاف النفس، وهو الاستنعاج
So, مبحث الخنوع = مذلّة النفس واستضعافها
This is opposite to مبحث الخضوع = الخضوع لله في العبادة وطاعته في أوامره وأحكامه, that is to submit to God and obey Him and His Messenger. (Again, this is an understanding, not a chapter title)
For example, we say الخضوع والخشوع والسجود لله
But to the opposite, there are examples of forced الخنوع والركوع لغير الله (plenty of examples available on the web)
The idea is that الخضوع هو لله، وضدّه الخنوع لغير الله

If we look up the two words in AR-AR (eg. Munjed & Mawrid) , استخذاء من خذأ وتعني أذلّ وأخزى غيرَه، وتُستخدَم بصيغة استخذى نفسه واستخذأها بمعنى اتّضعَ وصار وضيعاً لغيره, which can translate as 'to become a slavish submissive', 'to lower oneself before'.
As for استنعاج, it is استضعاف النفس and to accept that one is powerless and cannot make a change or revolt. The word is derived from نعجة, the female sheep - an ewe شاة. Some sheep breeds have no horns (neither in rams nor ewes) which make them double powerless and vulnerable; many breeds have ewes with no horns while some do. In addition, they obey, follow and hardly run away.

So, my understanding and the way I would translate this is:
'Subservience begets slavish submissiveness and slavish powerlessness'
الخنوع يستجلب للمرء إذلال نفسه واستضعافها = الخنوع يستجلب الاستخذاء والاستنعاج
It is both enforced and self-inflicted, when accepted in silence - like the lambs! For when they object they only bleat, and then sleep on it.
If the line is مبحث في الاستخذاء والاستنعاج, then perhaps 'Essays in Slavish Submissiveness and Powerlessness'.

R Farhat
Lebanon
Local time: 15:54
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 64

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Lamis Maalouf: I love the way you explained it. I was very interested in knowing what did these two words mean and didn't have the time to search but kept checking on the question.
5 hrs
  -> Thank you.

agree  halaelzorkany: thank u for the detailed explanation, i enjoyed reading it
8 hrs
  -> Many thanks.

agree  Linda Al-Bairmani
14 hrs
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Reference comments


28 mins
Reference: http://www.jazeeratalarab.com/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A/itemlist/user/68-%D8%

Reference information:
Some people might find the text offensive!

You'll find the term in the link, and it supports the colleagues' answers

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Note added at 43 mins (2013-11-11 21:44:14 GMT)
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http://www.jazeeratalarab.com/السبعاني/itemlist/user/68-سعود السبعاني.html

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 43 mins (2013-11-11 21:44:28 GMT)
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http://www.jazeeratalarab.com/السبعاني/itemlist/user/68-سعود السبعاني.html

Firas Allouzi
United Kingdom
Works in field
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in category: 8
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Changes made by editors
Nov 17, 2013 - Changes made by Mr. Mukhtar:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


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