KudoZ home » Bulgarian to English » Law/Patents

окръжен/районен съд

English translation: disrict court, regional court

Advertisement

Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Bulgarian term or phrase:районен съд, окръжен съд =
English translation:disrict court, regional court
Entered by: Vladimir Shapovalov
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

00:29 May 26, 2002
Bulgarian to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents
Bulgarian term or phrase: окръжен/районен съд
районен съд (ако не греша) е regional/district court. А окръжен? Май не е circuit court или е?

благодаря
Vladimir Shapovalov
United States
Local time: 22:44
районен съд = disrict court / окръжен съд = regional court
Explanation:
I know it may sound unbelievable, but you just read the European Court of Human Rights Judgment of 3 May 2001 on Application no. 32438/96 and you'll have the answer to your question.

Not that I particularly like this approach to literal rendition of Bulgarian lower and higher courts' appelations into English, but there is certain logic in such translation.

Following are some examples to help you get convinced or totally confused:

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
1.
If you have the time and the willingness, you may go to the following web-site
http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/bulgaria.htm
and read there some more info on Courts & Judgments in Bulgaria. Mind you, the source of that reading is the U.S. Department of State and it is intended for US lawyers and other law-related institutions who want or need to familizrize themselves with Bulgaria's judiciary. Here's an excerpt therefrom that provides, hopefully, yet another answer to your question:

" ...........
The court system consists of regional courts, district courts, and Supreme Courts of Cassation (civil and criminal appeal) and Administration. A Constitutional Court, which is separate from the rest of the court system, is empowered to rescind legislation that it considers unconstitutional, settle disputes over the conduct of general elections, and resolve conflicts over the division of powers between the various branches of government. Military courts handle cases involving military personnel (including police personnel) and some cases involving national security matters. The Constitutional Court does not have specific jurisdiction in matters of military justice.
............
Source: U.S. Department of State "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
2.
The fact that the above report is read, relied upon and quoted by various important institutions is illustrated in The Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom Report (http://database.townhall.com/heritage/index/country.cfm?ID=2...
" ......
Property Rights
Score: 3–Stable (moderate level of protection)

The judiciary is independent, and the threat of expropriation is low. According to the U.S. Department of State, however, "the judiciary continues to struggle with problems such as low salaries, understaffing, antiquated procedures, corruption, and a heavy backlog of cases. Partly as a legacy of communism and partly because of the court system’s structural and personnel problems, many citizens have little confidence in the judicial system." .... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
3.
The web-site of the East West Management Institute (http://www.ewmi.org/proj_buljud.html) has the following information to offer:
" ...
Court Administration

The principal goal of this component of JDPB is to help improve the administrative cohesiveness of Bulgaria's courts and develop an effective national court administration mechanism. As part of that strategy, the project works locally to develop a series of Model Pilot Courts (MPCs) embracing modern court administration norms and practices. The MPCs are designed to serve as models through which consensus and support for a national court administration system can be developed. To date, there are four MPCs in the following courts: Sofia District Court, Shoumen District Court, Smolyan Regional Court, and Smolyan District Court. The purpose of the MPC program is to test and evaluate the implementation of various court reform initiatives, including reengineered court administration processes, new software and the use of technology, standardized forms and manuals, new personnel positions and functions, and a host of other improvements.
..... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
4.
A little bit more confusing but quite accurate in fact is the information provided by the International Labour Organization (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/gems/eeo/law/bu...
" ... Regional and Assizes Courts - Bulgaria

Appeals against a decision of a District Court may be brought before the Regional or Assize Court, within a period of seven days from the date on which the party has been informed of the decision (articles 196 and 197 of the Code of Civil Procedure)."
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
5.
And here is a rather reliable source - The European Court of Human Rights:
(http://www.bghelsinki.org/en/intllaw/echr_7.html)
European Court of Human Rights judgments:

Case of Stefanov v. Bulgaria

(Application no. 32438/96)
JUDGMENT
(Friendly settlement)
Strasbourg
3 May 2001

In the case of Stefanov v. Bulgaria,

The European Court of Human Rights (Fourth Section), sitting as a Chamber composed of:

Mr G. RESS, President,
Mr A. PASTOR RIDRUEJO,
Mr L. CAFLISCH,
Mr J. MAKARCZYK,
Mr V. BUTKEVYCH,
Mr J. HEDIGAN,
Mrs S. BOTOUCHAROVA, judges,
and Mr V. BERGER, Section Registrar,

Having deliberated in private on 10 April 2001,

Delivers the following judgment, which was adopted on that date:
......
8. On 24 October 1994 criminal proceedings were opened against the applicant under section 361 § 1 of the Penal Code.
On 23 March 1995 the local District Court convicted the applicant and sentenced him to one and a half years' imprisonment. The court found that the law protected the religious freedoms but did not exempt anyone from military service. Moreover, the applicant refused to accept offers which were made in an effort to ensure respect for his religious beliefs. This indicated that the real reasons for the applicant's refusal to serve lay in his unwillingness to do so rather than in his religious convictions.
The court decided that the sentence should not be suspended because its effective serving by the applicant could help him understand his constitutional duties and have a positive impact on his personal development. Also, "the sentence [had to] be served because the court [found] that the arrival of more than 50 of the [applicant's] co-believers at the hearing [had been] organised in advance"; and because all those who had agreed to serve in the army despite their beliefs had to feel protected.

9. The applicant appealed to the Shoumen Regional Court against his conviction and sentence. As a result, in accordance with the relevant law, the District Court's judgment did not enter into force pending the examination of the appeal, and the applicant was not imprisoned.
On 6 June 1995 the Regional Court delivered its judgment. It found that the District Court had given excessive weight to the "general prevention" purpose of the sentence and that as a result the sentence was manifestly disproportionate. Instead, an opportunity should have been given to the applicant to think over his acts, under the threat of effective serving of the sentence if he re-offended. The Regional Court, therefore, suspended the sentence for a period of three years.
............. "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
6.
If you go to http://www.traveldocs.com/bg/govern.htm
you could read the following interesting explanaton about the structure of Bulgaria's judiciary:
"..............
The Bulgarian judicial system became an independent branch of the government following passage of the 1991 Constitution. Reform within this branch was initially slow, and in 1994, the National Assembly passed the Judicial Powers Act to further delineate the role of the judiciary. The first, appellate and cassation (highest appellate) courts comprise the three tiers of the judicial system. ... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
If I have to explain the above paragraph I would say that the first (instance) or the lowest courts in Bulgaria's three-tier judicial system are the district courts (районните съдилища), the appellate courts are the regional courts (окръжните съдилища), the cassation (or the highest appellate) courts are the two supreme courts (Върховният касационен и Върховният административен съд).

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
And here is why "circuit court" is not a very appropriate equivalent for the Bulgarian "окръжен съд". Let's start with the definition first:

Main Entry: circuit court
Function: noun
Date: 1708
: a court that sits at two or more places within one judicial district

CIRCUIT court = съд, провеждащ заседания на различни места в даден съдебен район

And Bulgarian regional courts (окръжни съдилища) have one fixed seat and do not sit in different places.

In addition, the circuit courts are much too typical US courts reflecting the unique US overlaps abd borderlines between state and federal court systems. They are part of the US Federal Court of Appeals as different from the state appellate courts. In Bulgaria you do not have that system, so using this particular US term is, in my view, inappropriate.

By the way, in most US states, however, there are also county and district courts that are roughly equivalent to Bulgaria's районни съдилища (district courts).

For instance,
"State courts try 90 percent of all civil and criminal cases. Local magistrates may sit on county or district courts. One appeal is always given, and two levels of appeals exist in many states."

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
I guess that should be enough. And it is probably confusing enough, too.

Well, good luck anyway and try to stay out of any court (district or regional) as much as you can.
Selected response from:

xxxVihar Kraste
Grading comment
Thank you, Vihar and Christopher!
It seems that the second answer was closer to the truth.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

Advertisement


Summary of answers provided
4районен съд = disrict court / окръжен съд = regional courtxxxVihar Kraste
4district courtChristopher Gierig


  

Answers


36 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
district court


Explanation:
Your translations seem to be correct.

районен съд - district court

окръжен съд - circuit court

Recently there was an election here and these positions were up for election. It was specifically these courts.


    Bulg - Eng dictionary
Christopher Gierig
United States
Local time: 22:44
PRO pts in pair: 6

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  xxxVihar Kraste: I would not call a Bulgarian окръжен съд a circuit court as they do not have much in common.
3 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
районен съд = disrict court / окръжен съд = regional court


Explanation:
I know it may sound unbelievable, but you just read the European Court of Human Rights Judgment of 3 May 2001 on Application no. 32438/96 and you'll have the answer to your question.

Not that I particularly like this approach to literal rendition of Bulgarian lower and higher courts' appelations into English, but there is certain logic in such translation.

Following are some examples to help you get convinced or totally confused:

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
1.
If you have the time and the willingness, you may go to the following web-site
http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/bulgaria.htm
and read there some more info on Courts & Judgments in Bulgaria. Mind you, the source of that reading is the U.S. Department of State and it is intended for US lawyers and other law-related institutions who want or need to familizrize themselves with Bulgaria's judiciary. Here's an excerpt therefrom that provides, hopefully, yet another answer to your question:

" ...........
The court system consists of regional courts, district courts, and Supreme Courts of Cassation (civil and criminal appeal) and Administration. A Constitutional Court, which is separate from the rest of the court system, is empowered to rescind legislation that it considers unconstitutional, settle disputes over the conduct of general elections, and resolve conflicts over the division of powers between the various branches of government. Military courts handle cases involving military personnel (including police personnel) and some cases involving national security matters. The Constitutional Court does not have specific jurisdiction in matters of military justice.
............
Source: U.S. Department of State "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
2.
The fact that the above report is read, relied upon and quoted by various important institutions is illustrated in The Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom Report (http://database.townhall.com/heritage/index/country.cfm?ID=2...
" ......
Property Rights
Score: 3–Stable (moderate level of protection)

The judiciary is independent, and the threat of expropriation is low. According to the U.S. Department of State, however, "the judiciary continues to struggle with problems such as low salaries, understaffing, antiquated procedures, corruption, and a heavy backlog of cases. Partly as a legacy of communism and partly because of the court system’s structural and personnel problems, many citizens have little confidence in the judicial system." .... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
3.
The web-site of the East West Management Institute (http://www.ewmi.org/proj_buljud.html) has the following information to offer:
" ...
Court Administration

The principal goal of this component of JDPB is to help improve the administrative cohesiveness of Bulgaria's courts and develop an effective national court administration mechanism. As part of that strategy, the project works locally to develop a series of Model Pilot Courts (MPCs) embracing modern court administration norms and practices. The MPCs are designed to serve as models through which consensus and support for a national court administration system can be developed. To date, there are four MPCs in the following courts: Sofia District Court, Shoumen District Court, Smolyan Regional Court, and Smolyan District Court. The purpose of the MPC program is to test and evaluate the implementation of various court reform initiatives, including reengineered court administration processes, new software and the use of technology, standardized forms and manuals, new personnel positions and functions, and a host of other improvements.
..... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
4.
A little bit more confusing but quite accurate in fact is the information provided by the International Labour Organization (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/gems/eeo/law/bu...
" ... Regional and Assizes Courts - Bulgaria

Appeals against a decision of a District Court may be brought before the Regional or Assize Court, within a period of seven days from the date on which the party has been informed of the decision (articles 196 and 197 of the Code of Civil Procedure)."
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
5.
And here is a rather reliable source - The European Court of Human Rights:
(http://www.bghelsinki.org/en/intllaw/echr_7.html)
European Court of Human Rights judgments:

Case of Stefanov v. Bulgaria

(Application no. 32438/96)
JUDGMENT
(Friendly settlement)
Strasbourg
3 May 2001

In the case of Stefanov v. Bulgaria,

The European Court of Human Rights (Fourth Section), sitting as a Chamber composed of:

Mr G. RESS, President,
Mr A. PASTOR RIDRUEJO,
Mr L. CAFLISCH,
Mr J. MAKARCZYK,
Mr V. BUTKEVYCH,
Mr J. HEDIGAN,
Mrs S. BOTOUCHAROVA, judges,
and Mr V. BERGER, Section Registrar,

Having deliberated in private on 10 April 2001,

Delivers the following judgment, which was adopted on that date:
......
8. On 24 October 1994 criminal proceedings were opened against the applicant under section 361 § 1 of the Penal Code.
On 23 March 1995 the local District Court convicted the applicant and sentenced him to one and a half years' imprisonment. The court found that the law protected the religious freedoms but did not exempt anyone from military service. Moreover, the applicant refused to accept offers which were made in an effort to ensure respect for his religious beliefs. This indicated that the real reasons for the applicant's refusal to serve lay in his unwillingness to do so rather than in his religious convictions.
The court decided that the sentence should not be suspended because its effective serving by the applicant could help him understand his constitutional duties and have a positive impact on his personal development. Also, "the sentence [had to] be served because the court [found] that the arrival of more than 50 of the [applicant's] co-believers at the hearing [had been] organised in advance"; and because all those who had agreed to serve in the army despite their beliefs had to feel protected.

9. The applicant appealed to the Shoumen Regional Court against his conviction and sentence. As a result, in accordance with the relevant law, the District Court's judgment did not enter into force pending the examination of the appeal, and the applicant was not imprisoned.
On 6 June 1995 the Regional Court delivered its judgment. It found that the District Court had given excessive weight to the "general prevention" purpose of the sentence and that as a result the sentence was manifestly disproportionate. Instead, an opportunity should have been given to the applicant to think over his acts, under the threat of effective serving of the sentence if he re-offended. The Regional Court, therefore, suspended the sentence for a period of three years.
............. "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
6.
If you go to http://www.traveldocs.com/bg/govern.htm
you could read the following interesting explanaton about the structure of Bulgaria's judiciary:
"..............
The Bulgarian judicial system became an independent branch of the government following passage of the 1991 Constitution. Reform within this branch was initially slow, and in 1994, the National Assembly passed the Judicial Powers Act to further delineate the role of the judiciary. The first, appellate and cassation (highest appellate) courts comprise the three tiers of the judicial system. ... "
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
If I have to explain the above paragraph I would say that the first (instance) or the lowest courts in Bulgaria's three-tier judicial system are the district courts (районните съдилища), the appellate courts are the regional courts (окръжните съдилища), the cassation (or the highest appellate) courts are the two supreme courts (Върховният касационен и Върховният административен съд).

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
And here is why "circuit court" is not a very appropriate equivalent for the Bulgarian "окръжен съд". Let's start with the definition first:

Main Entry: circuit court
Function: noun
Date: 1708
: a court that sits at two or more places within one judicial district

CIRCUIT court = съд, провеждащ заседания на различни места в даден съдебен район

And Bulgarian regional courts (окръжни съдилища) have one fixed seat and do not sit in different places.

In addition, the circuit courts are much too typical US courts reflecting the unique US overlaps abd borderlines between state and federal court systems. They are part of the US Federal Court of Appeals as different from the state appellate courts. In Bulgaria you do not have that system, so using this particular US term is, in my view, inappropriate.

By the way, in most US states, however, there are also county and district courts that are roughly equivalent to Bulgaria's районни съдилища (district courts).

For instance,
"State courts try 90 percent of all civil and criminal cases. Local magistrates may sit on county or district courts. One appeal is always given, and two levels of appeals exist in many states."

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
I guess that should be enough. And it is probably confusing enough, too.

Well, good luck anyway and try to stay out of any court (district or regional) as much as you can.

xxxVihar Kraste
PRO pts in pair: 32
Grading comment
Thank you, Vihar and Christopher!
It seems that the second answer was closer to the truth.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Return to KudoZ list


KudoZ™ translation help
The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.



See also:



Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search