库尔洛夫表示式

17:06 Oct 7, 2005
Chinese to English translations [PRO]
Science - Geology / Surveying
Chinese term or phrase: 库尔洛夫表示式
Talking about rock quality; from PRC
gracie_53


Summary of answers provided
2Kurlov Formula
Kelvin Wu
2Kurlov
Scott Horne (X)
1FYI 库洛夫 = Kurloff...
chica nueva
3 -2蒙的艺术
Last Hermit


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


1 day 1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): -2
库尔洛夫表示式
蒙的艺术


Explanation:
是不是这个人:kolmogorov, andrey nikolayevich

The following is quoted from EB

born April 25 [April 12, Old Style], 1903, Tambov, Russia
died Oct. 20, 1987, Moscow

Russian mathematician whose work influenced many branches of modern mathematics, especially harmonic analysis, probability, set theory, information theory, andnumber theory. A man of broad culture, with interests in technology, history, and education, he played an active role in the reform of education in the Soviet Union. He is best remembered for a brilliant series of papers on the theory of probability.


Life

Kolmogorov's mother died giving him birth; he was raised by her sister and took his maternal grandfather's family name. His aunt moved with him to Moscow when he was seven years old, where he demonstrated an early interest in biology and history. In 1920, as yet undecided over a career, he enrolled simultaneously at Moscow State University to study history and mathematics and at the Mendeleev Chemical Engineering Institute to study metallurgy. However, he soon revealed a remarkable talent for mathematics and specialized in that subject.As a 19-year-old student he was entrusted with teaching mathematics and physics courses in the Potylikhin Experimental School, and by the time he graduated in 1925 he had published 10 mathematical papers, most of them on trigonometric series—an extraordinary output for a student. This astonishing outburst of mathematical creativity continued as a graduate student with eight more papers written through 1928. He later expanded the most important of these papers, “General Theory of Measure and Probability Theory”—which aimed to develop a rigorous, axiomatic foundation for probability—into an influential monograph Grundbegriffe derWahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung (1933; Foundations of the Theory of Probability, 1950). In 1929, having completed his doctorate, Kolmogorov was elected a member of the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics at Moscow State University, with which he remained associated for the rest of his life. In 1931, following a radical restructuring of the Moscow mathematical community, he was elected a professor. Two years later he was appointed director of the Mathematical Research Institute at the university, a position he held until 1939 and again from 1951 to 1953. In 1938 he was chosen to head the new department of probability and statistics atthe Steklov Mathematical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in Moscow (now the Russian Academy of Sciences), a position that he held until 1958. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1939, and between 1946 and 1949 he was also the head of the Turbulence Laboratory of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Theoretical Geophysics in Moscow.


Mathematical research

Of the many areas of pure and applied mathematical research to which Kolmogorov contributed, probability theory is unquestionably the most important, in terms of both the depthand breadth of his contributions. In addition to his work on the foundations of probability, he contributed profound papers on stochastic processes, especially Markov processes. In Markov processes only the present state has any bearing upon the probability of future states; states are therefore said to retain no “memory” of past events. Kolmogorov invented a pair of functions to characterize the transition probabilities for a Markov process and showed that they amount to what he called an “instantaneous mean” and an “instantaneous variance.” Using these functions, he was able to write a set of partial differential equations to determine the probabilities of transition from one state to another. These equations provided an entirely new approach to the application of probability theory in physics, chemistry, civil engineering, and biology. To note just two examples, in 1937 Kolmogorov published a paper on the use of statistical theory to study the process of crystallization, and the following year he published a paper on mathematical biology using a branching stochastic process to describe the asymptoticprobability of extinction of a species over a large number of generations.

Kolmogorov's interest in problems of turbulence in fluids (turbulent flow) arose in the late 1930s, when he realized that the recently developed stochastic field theory would be relevant to these problems. In 1941 and 1942 he contributed four papers to this area, in which his contributions were multiplied by a talented group of collaborators working under his direction.

During the 1930s, while continuing a prolific output of papers on particular mathematical topics, Kolmogorov began to write articles on methodological questions involving the theories of realanalysis and probability. He also began to write expository articles for encyclopedias and journals aimed at a popular audience. After the end of World War II, established as one of the leading Soviet mathematicians, he began writing articles of historical and philosophical content. During the 1950s he contributed more than 80 articles to the second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia.

In the mid-1950s Kolmogorov began to work on problems of information theory. He was inspired, in part, by the earlier nonrigorous work of the American engineer Claude Shannon. Working with Israil Gelfand and Akiva Yaglom, he was able to give a mathematical definition of the notion of quantity of information. In the 1960s he began writing articles on automata theory and theory of algorithms. The breadth of his culture and interests is shown by articles that he wrote at this time on the metrical structure of some of the masterpieces of Russian poetry.

The late 1960s marked Kolmogorov's entrance into the theory of pedagogy, in which he was enormously influential through his textbooks and his service as a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Pedagogical Sciences. He cowrote and reviewed school textbooks and actively participated in reforming the mathematics curriculum in Soviet schools. Though suffering from Parkinson's disease and nearly blind during the last few years of his life, he continued to take anactive interest in the mathematical world until he died.

Assessment

Kolmogorov was the recipient of numerous awards and honours, including a Stalin Prize (1941), a Lenin Prize (1965), a Wolf Prize (1980), and a Lobachevsky Prize (1987).

The breadth of Kolmogorov's creative output can be discerned from a list of more than 500 articles and books that he published between 1923 and 1977. The depth of his work reveals itself in the objects that he studied, all of which involved concepts central to mathematics. He seemed to be attracted instinctively by problems whose fundamental importance was recognized by the mathematical community.

Additional reading

The most detailed scientific biography of Kolmogorov is the article by A.N. Shiryaev, “Kolmogorov: Life and Creative Activities,” The Annals of Probability, 17(3): 866–944 (July 1989).A recent retrospective on his work is Harold H. McFaden (trans.), Kolmogorov in Perspective (2000).

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Note added at 1 day 1 hr 5 mins (2005-10-08 18:11:34 GMT)
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还有这里:http://211.153.80.12/RESOURCE/CZ/CZSX/SXBL/SXTS1006/599_SR.H...

Last Hermit
Local time: 22:00
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  chica nueva: http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:2rF2lMAjnSIJ:www.kepu.g... Kolmogorov = 柯尔莫哥洛夫
3 hrs

disagree  Scott Horne (X): utterly wrong
1 day 3 hrs
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1 day 4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5
库尔洛夫表示式
FYI 库洛夫 = Kurloff...


Explanation:
库洛夫 = Kurloff (the name of a cell biologist, nothing to do with geology...)

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Note added at 1 day 4 hrs 23 mins (2005-10-08 21:29:42 GMT)
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库尔洛夫式 = 一个天然水化学成分的表示方法,跟图示法相比...:

[DOC] 中等职业学校
File Format: Microsoft Word - View as HTML
掌握天然水化学成分的舒卡列夫分类。掌握天然水化学成分的表示方法(库尔洛夫式、图示
法等)。 (三) 天然水化学成分的形成与特征. 1. 地表水化学成分的形成机理. 理解河水
化学成分的形成与分带特征。理解湖水化学成分的形成与变化特征。 ...
www.ep12.com/download/hjbh15.doc - Supplemental Result - Similar pages



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Note added at 1 day 4 hrs 33 mins (2005-10-08 21:40:04 GMT)
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[PDF] Untitled
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
利用库尔洛夫式表达天然水的基本化学性质,不仅简单明了,而且还能. 根据含量大于25%
的主要离子成分进行水化学分类命名。小汤山温泉便属于 ...
61.184.187.19/zxdd/tushiguan/90/gljx/ts090033.pdf - Similar pages

第六章地下水的化学成分及其形成作用 - [ Translate this page ]
地下水水化学成分表示——库尔洛夫式:将阴阳离子分别标示在横线上,按毫克当量.
百分数自大到小顺序排列,小于10%的离子不予表示。 6.3 地下水的温度 ...
www2.sjzue.edu.cn/.../meitijiaoxue/meitijiaoxuewenjian/ shuiwendizhixuejichu/chapter%20six/n0.6.htm - 25k - Supplemental Result - Cached - Similar pages


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Note added at 1 day 4 hrs 39 mins (2005-10-08 21:46:17 GMT)
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库尔洛夫:见'库尔洛夫表示式''库尔洛夫式' '库尔洛夫分类标准'...

[DOC] 中华人民共和国文物保护单位记录档案专用纸
File Format: Microsoft Word 2000 - View as HTML
造像区所在的飞来峰在地貌上为一独立低丘,构成一个相对独立的水文地质单元。区内主要
接受大气降水补给,以莲花峰为中心,汇水面积约0.35km2。 ... 取泉水样进行水化学分析
的结果表明:按库尔洛夫分类标准,造像区地下水属低矿化度、弱碱性的重碳酸钙型。 ...
www.jxwh.gov.cn/xz/ 石刻石窟寺示范本-飞来峰主卷文字卷/06.doc - Similar pages

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Note added at 1 day 4 hrs 46 mins (2005-10-08 21:53:12 GMT)
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could be Chernoff?:

http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:Acyg8iMUxJUJ:www.mines....

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Note added at 1 day 5 hrs 2 mins (2005-10-08 22:08:41 GMT)
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还有关于'天然水滑水分类'- Stiff diagram:
石油精灵网--软件简介 - [ Translate this page ]
... 还可以节约大量的人力、物力和时间。 《桌面水化学实验室模拟软件》计算了普遍
存在于天然水中的 ... 温度、压力)下设备和管线,水质在各个环节应满足一定的标准
要求,其中Stiff图是一个很好的手段。即事先建立各个部门环节 ...
www.oilfairy.com/htmBrief/SZ001.html - 9k - Supplemental Result - Cached - Similar pages

chica nueva
Local time: 03:00
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 2
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2 days 4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
库尔洛夫柄婢式
Kurlov


Explanation:
I can't tell who this is without seeing the context, but _Kurlov_ is the most likely spelling if the person is a Russian or a Bulgarian born in the past hundred years or so.


Scott Horne (X)
Local time: 09:00
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
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8 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
库尔洛夫表示式
Kurlov Formula


Explanation:
Could it be this?

The first national hydrogeological congress, held in Leningrad in 1931, accepted a new system for recording the chemical composition of all mineral waters. This system known as the Kurlov formula is still widely used in Russia, especially for mineral waters. The formula is written as a fraction.

(from "Some features of mineral waters in Russia")


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Note added at 8 days (2005-10-15 20:48:21 GMT)
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I mean "the Kurlov formula"


    Reference: http://www.earthscape.org/r2/eng/EnvironGeo06_v3905_00.pdf
Kelvin Wu
Local time: 09:00
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ChineseChinese
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