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领民

English translation: resident/inhabitant

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Chinese term or phrase:领民
English translation:resident/inhabitant
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

15:56 Dec 12, 2010
    The asker opted for community grading. The question was closed on 2010-12-16 07:54:12 based on peer agreement (or, if there were too few peer comments, asker preference.)


Chinese to English translations [PRO]
Social Sciences - History / economic history, history of the military system
Chinese term or phrase: 领民
This word is included in the title of a book, written by an historian (dealing with economic history, history of the military system, economy of monasteries and temples, history of Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties):
三国时期国家的三种领民
I guess that 领民 could indicate some kind of slaves or prisonners, is that correct?
Thanks!
Francesca Cassini
Italy
Local time: 12:38
resident/inhabitant
Explanation:
领民refers to the resident here. Although 州郡领民were governed by the States and Prefectures, they are not slaves.
Household Registration System( an early form of census) in Three Kingdoms period divided the
resident(领民) into three categories: 州郡领民(普通民户)、 屯田户和军户。
军户( military resident) is the lowest rank among the three.
Selected response from:

Su Hong
United States
Local time: 06:38
Grading comment
Really very helpul, thanks!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
3 +1resident/inhabitant
Su Hong
4tribeGuohuan Chen
3vassals
Aaron Gilkison


  

Answers


58 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
resident/inhabitant


Explanation:
领民refers to the resident here. Although 州郡领民were governed by the States and Prefectures, they are not slaves.
Household Registration System( an early form of census) in Three Kingdoms period divided the
resident(领民) into three categories: 州郡领民(普通民户)、 屯田户和军户。
军户( military resident) is the lowest rank among the three.


Example sentence(s):
  • 三种领民分属于国家三种不同的行政系统之下,州郡领民隶属于州郡县政府;屯田客属于典农中郎将、典农校尉、典农都尉;军户属于将军及州郡。
  • 州郡领民在三国时还是独立自由民的性质,是小土地的所有者,自己耕种着自己的土地.

    Reference: http://www.clght.com/show.aspx?id=333&cid=1
Su Hong
United States
Local time: 06:38
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Really very helpul, thanks!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Aaron Gilkison
6 mins
  -> Thank you, Aaron.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

57 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
vassals


Explanation:
I think it is an article, not a book. If you could get your hands on the article itself it would become obvious.

It was published in 1935 by He Ziquan. He describes it as follows:
30年代我写过一篇《三国时期国家的三种领民》,刊登在1935年5月1日出刊的《食货》半月刊的第1卷第11期上。在这篇文章里我指出,“三国以后社会所表现的一个最显著的特征,就是人口的分割”,“大族与国家平分了天下的人口”,“国家有国家的领民,大族有大族的领民”。我还进而指出,“国家领民以其性质和对国家之剥削关系的不同可以分为三种:一是州郡领民,二是屯田客,三是军户。”

军户,曹魏时期称作士家,晋到刘宋逐渐有兵户、军户之称。在《三国时期国家的三种领民》一文里,我不但指出三种领民是分籍的,各有所属的,一般民户属于州郡县,屯田客属于佃家将校,军户属于所隶属的将军,而且指出军户是“世代为兵的”,军户的社会身份逐步降低,“到东晋时军户已渐渐成为低于编户的人户”。

《三国时期国家的三种领民》可以说是世兵制研究的滥觞。但那篇文章对世兵制的研究未能展开。

(http://daxue.163.com/10/0604/11/68B673K2009163A5.html})

Based on that description it doesn't sound like slaves or prisoners. I think it is just referring to the different types of military personnel controlled by the government and the major clans/families.

Vassal/feudatory might be the right terminology, but it would be necessary to really look at the article to make sure that the definition of the various 领民 fit the English definition appropriately. there is already a Chinese term for vassal, 封臣, but this only refers to the enfeoffed leader/noble and not to their troops/military personnel.

Hope that helps!





--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2010-12-12 17:14:45 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Here is another article by He Ziquan. He clearly distinguishes 州郡领民 as being free residents.

"州郡领民在三国时还是独立自由民的性质,是小土地的所有者,自己耕种着自己的土地"

http://www.clght.com/show.aspx?id=333&cid=1

Given this, I would say that Ms. Su's response is best.


Aaron Gilkison
United States
Local time: 06:38
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: English
Notes to answerer
Asker: Hi Aaron, it actually is an article, not a book, I was on a hurry when I wrote the question... As you also agree on Ms. Su's answer, which is very convincing, I'll go for that. Thanks a lot for your help!

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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
tribe


Explanation:
领民、吏民、属民、部民等都可以翻译为Tribe


    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribe
Guohuan Chen
Canada
Local time: 06:38
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
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