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20:50 Sep 26, 2011
Chinese to English translations [PRO] Art/Literary - Religion
Chinese term or phrase:授決經
阿闍世王《授決經》is from Tipitaka (大藏經).
授決，same as 受記(vyākarana) , can mean:the giving of a record, prediction; foretelling...
Is anyone knows how to translate "授決經"? Can it be translated as "vyākarana sutra"?
Many thanks in advance.
So "Vyākarana" already means "授記經," there is no necessity to add "sutra" to emphasize "經" this word? (wouldn't it be another translation issue? -- It depends on how the translator preceives these terms? From sanskrit to Chinese, the translator translated it according to the target language custom, but when we think of it back from Chinese to sanskrit, the translator might be conditioned by the Chinese custom and think he/she should add the translation of "經"? Otherwise, why does the google book show the information of "Buddha-bhashita Ajatasatru-raja-vayakarana-sutra?)
I also found a definition: "Vyakarana Sutra" is sutra of grammar (http://www.indianetzone.com/38/ancient_indian_literature.htm... I've asked someone who has religion translation experience regarding this word "Vyakarana." He told me that vyakarana can refer to something about grammar too (for example:旃陀羅文法論經》(Candra-vyakarana-sutra/Candra-vyakarana ) ).
.... Perhaps, a new category will be added for the canonical demands.
FYI, the displayed page for "Vyakarana Sutra" in Google search include :
53 Candra-vyakarana-sutra; Stri- Vivarta-Vyakarana-Sutra; Panini-Vyakarana Sutras; the Maitreya-vyakarana- sutra; Sarasvati Vyakarana Sutra....
(I think you are right. I haven't seen "Gatha Sutra" yet. )
The first nine are listed in all surviving agamas, with the other three added in some later sources. In Theravada, at least, they are regarded as a classification of the whole of the scriptures, not just suttas. The scheme is also found in Mahayana texts. However, some time later a new organizational scheme was imposed on the canon, which is now the most familiar. The scheme organises the suttas into.... ("Buddhist Texts", Wikipedia)
I remember when I first learned the 12 "discourses," the author took the trouble to briefly explain the general meaning of "sutra" in order to introduce the classification. I guess, the reason is exactly why we are here talking about. The intrinsic confusion in it is because of the different ways of perceiving and organizing things in different ages. As a matter of fact, this kind of Foucaultian "order-of-things" disparity, in our case, involves so many generations of classification efforts. I'm wondering many generations later, how will people in the future classifies those sermons, speeches, or even internet posted writings that the distinguished religious leaders in our time has made. Perhaps, ...
ChefZ, "Vyakarana Sutra" is a category. I think if you search it on internet, you'll find a lot even beyond our common knowledge of of it.
Another point is that the 12 category wasn't as systematic a classification system as modern bibliographical system. Modern systematic classification system originated in Greece (Aristotle) long after Mahakashyapa's rallies for sutra compilations. Therefore, you can find that from the second on to the twelve, most of the names do not refer to the form but to the nature of contents.
Thank you for the explanation. I will be happy to grand the points to Chefz. But I think I will adopt the translation from googlebook as a formal version. Is it possible to find out where the translation of "Vyākaraṇa Sutra" and "Ajatasatru Sutra" are from?
By the way, I suggest using the title in the formal way. "Ajatasatru Sutra" is convenient, but I would use it after its formal/full title has been introduced.
And I agree with you in that "vyākaraṇa" is the keyword.
I've seen "Ajatasatru Sutra" used as a informal name for convenience, but "Vyākaraṇa Sutra" as a formal short form.
Dear Colleague: Thanks for your message and for your advanced explanations. I'm happy to learn more about the information. It's the repay I get from this. I think the credits belong to ChefZ. He's the one who finds the most keywords. Wish you the best in your project.
To Chefz, thanks for the info. To jarv95888, the link you provide is very helpful. I checked an online dictionary, rāja means king. So the version on googlebook is like the Chinese version. Would you change your comment to an answer so I can grand you credit?// I think "vyākarana" is a key word here, so it has to be shown in the translation. King Ajatasatru was described in different sutras, if it is just translated as "Ajatasatru Sutra," wouldn't it cause readers' confusion? //
Also, here are some definitions of vyākaraṇa
1. Explanation, elucidation, or analysis, particularly with reference to points of doctrine.
2. The science of grammar.
3. A prediction or prophecy, used especially in Mahāyāna sūtras with reference to the prediction given by a Buddha to a Bodhisattva who has just embarked on the path. The prediction often details the Bodhisattva's future deeds, his achievement of enlightenment (bodhi) and his eventual name as a Buddha.