exaptation

Arabic translation: تكيّف خارجي

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:exaptation
Arabic translation:تكيّف خارجي
Entered by: vanilla_sky

09:00 Sep 8, 2007
English to Arabic translations [PRO]
Science - Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
English term or phrase: exaptation
According to Gould (1991) , exaptations come in two types. In the first type, features that evolved by selection for one function are co-opted for another function. In the second type, "presently useful characteristics did not arise as adaptations . . . but owe their origin to side consequences of other features".

Thanks in advance
vanilla_sky
Local time: 19:56
تكيّف خارجي / مغاير
Explanation:
ex بادئة بمعنى خارجي أو بعيدًا عن
An exaptation is a biological adaptation where the biological function currently performed by the adaptation was not the function performed while the adaptation evolved under earlier pressures of natural selection.
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Exaptation

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Note added at 1 hr (2007-09-08 10:05:15 GMT)
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as an equivalent for adaptation (in the field of medicine) we also find
مواءمة و تلاؤم أو ملاءمة
Selected response from:

zkt
Lebanon
Local time: 19:56
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +1التكيف المكتسب
Sayed Moustafa talawy
2 +3تكيّف خارجي / مغاير
zkt
1 +1التهايؤ
Ali Al awadi


Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


51 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5 peer agreement (net): +3
تكيّف خارجي / مغاير


Explanation:
ex بادئة بمعنى خارجي أو بعيدًا عن
An exaptation is a biological adaptation where the biological function currently performed by the adaptation was not the function performed while the adaptation evolved under earlier pressures of natural selection.
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Exaptation

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Note added at 1 hr (2007-09-08 10:05:15 GMT)
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as an equivalent for adaptation (in the field of medicine) we also find
مواءمة و تلاؤم أو ملاءمة

zkt
Lebanon
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 32

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Assem Mazloum: Good job
30 mins
  -> Thank you Assem

agree  Samya Salem (X)
10 hrs
  -> Thank you nurelislam

agree  Hebat-Allah El Ashmawy: تكيّف خارجي
1 day 1 hr
  -> Thank you Hebat-Allah
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5 peer agreement (net): +1
التهايؤ


Explanation:
حقيقة لم أتمكن من العثور على مرجع عربي واحد أو مرجع أجنبي مترجم يؤصل معنى كلمة
exaptation
فكان لابد من الاستناد إلى معناها الإنجليزي ثم الاجتهاد في إيجاد مقابل لها بالعربية
Exaptation is
a feature co-opted (preferred) for new purposes
It is "a feature, now useful to an organism, that did not arise as an adaptation for its present role, but was subsequently co-opted for its current function"
Second, exaptations are "features that now enhance fitness, but were not built by natural selection for their current role" .
وهذا الكلام مأخوذ عن جولد

ولم أجد مقابل بالعربية أفضل من التهايؤ
يعني باختصار
التهايؤ هو نزوع الكائن الحي للتكيف لإرضاء متطلبات بيئية جديدة لم تكن ضرورية من قبل

ويصف جولد التهايؤ بأنه تكيف ينشأ عن حاجة الكائن الحي إليه لتلبية احتياجات حيوية جديدة. وقد وصف جولد عملية التهايؤ
exaptation
بأنها من متممات التكيف
adaptation





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Note added at 1 hr (2007-09-08 10:10:46 GMT)
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إضافة أخرى
التهايؤ يعني كل تحول يلبي أغراضاً بيولوجية وقتية آنية
التكيف هو كل تحول يلبي أغراضاً طبيعية طويلة المدى ويحدث في الكائن الحي بالانتخاب الطبيعي


    Reference: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Exaptation
    Reference: http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/comm/haselton/webdocs/spandrels.h...
Ali Al awadi
Romania
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in category: 15

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Mohamed Gaafar
4 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
التكيف المكتسب


Explanation:
Exaptations
An “exaptation” is just one example of a characteristic that evolved, but that isn’t considered an adaptation. Stephen Gould and Elizabeth Vrba1 proposed vocabulary to let biologists talk about features that are and are not adaptations:

Adaptation—a feature produced by natural selection for its current function (such as echolocation in bats, right).

Exaptation—a feature that performs a function but that was not produced by natural selection for its current use. Perhaps the feature was produced by natural selection for a function other than the one it currently performs and was then co-opted for its current function. For example, feathers might have originally arisen in the context of selection for insulation, and only later were they co-opted for flight. In this case, the general form of feathers is an adaptation for insulation and an exaptation for flight.


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Note added at 2 hrs (2007-09-08 11:35:17 GMT)
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http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIE5cExaptatio...

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Note added at 2 hrs (2007-09-08 11:36:38 GMT)
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المثال تكيف ريش الطيور المكتسب من تغير الطبيعة
مثل الحرباء وتغيرها حسب لون الوسط المحيط بها

Sayed Moustafa talawy
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Hebat-Allah El Ashmawy
1 day 11 mins
  -> thanks Hebat-Allah
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)



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