|hispanic or latino |
من أصل أسباني أو من أصل أمريكي لاتيني
A good place to start when you encounter difficulty with a term is the dictionary. If the term is not mentioned or not well treated in your bilingual dictionary, a monolingual English dictionary often has enough information to help you translate the term. The discipline of looking in your dictionary and conductiing online usage search is one of the hallmarks of professional linguists. It is time consumeing, but that is what you are paid to do. Besides, many of the most reliable dictionaries and encyclopedias are now available online, free of charge. KudoZ is not an alternative to the terminology look up routine. It is where we all end up when the look up routine yields no satisfactory results.
The expressions "Hispanic" and "Latino" are well explained in a usage article in the American Heritage Dictionary, which is available online, free of charge. Here is the text:
Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant. Hispanic, from the Latin word for “Spain,” has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common. Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning. In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word.
A more important distinction concerns the sociopolitical rift that has opened between Latino and Hispanic in American usage. For a certain segment of the Spanish-speaking population, Latino is a term of ethnic pride and Hispanic a label that borders on the offensive. According to this view, Hispanic lacks the authenticity and cultural resonance of Latino, with its Spanish sound and its ability to show the feminine form Latina when used of women. Furthermore, Hispanic—the term used by the U.S. Census Bureau and other government agencies—is said to bear the stamp of an Anglo establishment far removed from the concerns of the Spanish-speaking community. While these views are strongly held by some, they are by no means universal, and the division in usage seems as related to geography as it is to politics, with Latino widely preferred in California and Hispanic the more usual term in Florida and Texas. Even in these regions, however, usage is often mixed, and it is not uncommon to find both terms used by the same writer or speaker.
Note added at 4 hrs 7 mins (2005-04-16 23:21:24 GMT)
Here is the link to the article I quoted above:
Notice also how this website (http://www.bartleby.com) aggregates information from a large number of sources:
55 books of poetry
85 fiction authors (multiple works for some)
73 non-fiction authors (multiple works for some)
all of the works are searchable within the site and from independent search engines.
Bartleby.com is just one example of many online resources that a professional linguist can make use of, gaining greater speed and broader access to information.
KudoZ on ProZ.com remains a unique (albeit imitated) source on the web, because the information is provided by live linguists addressing specific questions. For this very reason, it needs to be used with circumspection, so that a linguist would not get into the habit of delegating all terms for which one does not have a ready mental translation to KudoZ answerers.
Note added at 10 hrs 5 mins (2005-04-17 05:19:37 GMT)
I would like to address the point raised by Mona in her comment below:
The asker has failed to provide full context, so a number of points are being presumed.
The first presumption is that the question \"Are you Hispanic or Latino?\" is from a US questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire are presumed American of different ethnicities.
The second presumption is that the question does not ask the respondent to choose between being Hispanic or being Latino, but rather to answer yes if either \"Hispanic\" or \"Latino\" applies to the individual. The \"or\" in the question is not the \"or\" that gives a choice, but the \"or\" that that makes either set applicable, as in the question:
\"Have you ever been convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor?\"
With that in mind:
\"Hispanic\" would be translated as من أصل أسـباني
\"Latino\" (short for \"latinoamericano,\" i.e., \"Latin American\") would be translated as من أصل أمريكي لاتيني
The the word أمريكي is added to the latter because \"Latino\" does not mean \"Latin\" here, but rather \"Latin American,\" or, more accurately, \"originally from a Latin American country.\" Latin American countries include Mexico and the countries of Central America and South America, as well as many Carribbean countires (such as Cuba).
Hispanic, on the other hand, means originally form a country where the predominant language and culture are Spanish. That includes Spain and many countries in the Western Hemisphere. But not all Latin American countries in the Western Hemisphere are Hispanic. The predominant language in Brazil, for instance, is Portuguese.
Therefore, someone orginally from Brazil, someone originally form Mexico, and someone originally form Spain will all answer \"yes\" to the question as stated. The person originally from Spain would be Hispanic, but not Latino (not from Latin America); the person originally from Mexico would be both Hispanic and Latino (but may prefer one rather than the other); and the person originally from Brazil would be Latino, but not Hispanic. But they all answer \"yes.\" That is the whole point of the question.
Works in field
Native speaker of: Arabic, English
PRO pts in category: 36