an adversarial system

Chinese translation: 对抗制/抗辩制/当事人进行主义

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:an adversarial system
Chinese translation:对抗制/抗辩制/当事人进行主义
Entered by: Red & Black

04:15 Oct 16, 2008
English to Chinese translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general) / Judiciary System
English term or phrase: an adversarial system
背景和語境:11月初台灣法學界邀請德國法學及法務界知名人士來台,舉行一場促進廢除死刑的研討會,先生受託參與現場同傳(即席會議口譯),正在為準備工做所閱讀的英文資料裡有如下敘述。

The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary and judges are prohibited from taking part in political activities. Cases are tried in public, although in practice, notification practices are somewhat deficient, families of victims and of accused persons reported inadequate notification of trials in which they had an interest. Judges, rather than juries, decide cases and deliver verdicts. In the past, witnesses were interrogated by the judges rather than by defence or prosecution counsel but recent changes have resulted in the introduction of an adversarial system and consequently, the role of the judges has become less proactive during trials. Defendants are not required to testify at their own trial.

問題:顯然以往台灣的法律思維造成一種不合理的系統,讓法官可以球員兼裁判,直到近十年來法界才逐漸尊重被告的人權,採取an adversarial system進行審理司法案件。這個adversarial system在中文裡應該如何翻譯呢?希望台灣的中文和中國的中文裡都有類似可以對譯的概念,敬請提供。

先道謝了!
Red & Black
Local time: 22:04
对抗制
Explanation:
對抗制

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Note added at 17分钟 (2008-10-16 04:32:40 GMT)
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http://define.cnki.net/WebForms/WebDefines.aspx?searchword=对...

"对抗制" 在工具书中的解释

1、英美等国在刑事诉讼的庭审阶段实行的一种制度。对抗制主要表现在询问证人上。原、被告双方都可以作为证人作证。先是由原告律师或公诉人询问原告方面的证人,即所谓直接询问(direct examinat-ion)。这种询问总是从有利于原告出发,其目的是借此引导法官和陪审团接受自己的主张。原告方面向证人询问和调查证物完毕后,就由被告律......

http://journal.chinalawinfo.com/Article_Info.asp?Id=28321
对抗制与调解制度的冲突与融合




--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 21分钟 (2008-10-16 04:36:51 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

这篇文章同时用了抗辩制和对抗制,可以根据台湾的表述习惯进行选择

http://www.jus.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=1561

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 39分钟 (2008-10-16 04:54:45 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

在台湾可以译成“当事人进行主义”
http://peace.ls.fju.edu.tw/doc/28.doc
Selected response from:

Yurek
China
Local time: 22:04
Grading comment
Thank you very much for the thorough explanation and reference materials!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +1当事人主义
Michael Tang
4 +1对抗制
Yurek


Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


14 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
当事人主义


Explanation:
英美法的当事人主义又称为“由当事人进行主导、控制、表演的诉讼模式(party-domination\party presenttion\party-prosecution)”,是指诉讼的发动、继续和发展主要依赖于当事人:诉讼过程由当事人主导,法官仅处于消极的中立的裁判者地位;当事人要负责证据的调查、准备、提出、和证据价值的陈述工作,法官不能在当事人指明的证据范围以外依职权主动收集证据 [vi]。在当事人主义之下,诉讼实际上是一种竞技运动,也是当事人之间的一种比赛,法官只处于一种裁判者的角色 [vii],


    Reference: http://www.lexwebster.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=250&extra=p...
Michael Tang
China
Local time: 22:04
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 4
Notes to answerer
Asker: Great! This seems to be the right term for the judiciary concept. Thank you!

Asker: 謝謝你!不過,這一題的答案很難有個標準,原則上Yurek的理解是正確的,只是用詞屬於中華人民共和國的法律用詞,他的補充說明也相當完備,我不能一題給兩個人分數,下次機會了。還是很感謝你。


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  TRANS4CHINA
47 mins
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
对抗制


Explanation:
對抗制

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 17分钟 (2008-10-16 04:32:40 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

http://define.cnki.net/WebForms/WebDefines.aspx?searchword=对...

"对抗制" 在工具书中的解释

1、英美等国在刑事诉讼的庭审阶段实行的一种制度。对抗制主要表现在询问证人上。原、被告双方都可以作为证人作证。先是由原告律师或公诉人询问原告方面的证人,即所谓直接询问(direct examinat-ion)。这种询问总是从有利于原告出发,其目的是借此引导法官和陪审团接受自己的主张。原告方面向证人询问和调查证物完毕后,就由被告律......

http://journal.chinalawinfo.com/Article_Info.asp?Id=28321
对抗制与调解制度的冲突与融合




--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 21分钟 (2008-10-16 04:36:51 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

这篇文章同时用了抗辩制和对抗制,可以根据台湾的表述习惯进行选择

http://www.jus.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=1561

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 39分钟 (2008-10-16 04:54:45 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

在台湾可以译成“当事人进行主义”
http://peace.ls.fju.edu.tw/doc/28.doc

Yurek
China
Local time: 22:04
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
Thank you very much for the thorough explanation and reference materials!
Notes to answerer
Asker: 謝謝您的建議,不過我先生要的是法律專有名詞,請您說明這個詞的出處,以表示它是法學界的正式用詞。謝謝!

Asker: 中華人民共和國的法律用詞與中華民國的法律用詞有些差異。在理解上,這個法律訴訟概念確實是兩造對抗,或一造提訟另造抗辨的訴訟審理制度,法曹不得有個人意見及審問,只能由訴訟雙方提出相戶的詰問和抗辯,再由法曹據法裁定。因此你的答案也非常有幫助。我事後查考,在台灣稱為「當事人(進行)主義」。


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  orientalhorizon: 也有的译为“抗辩制”,这两种译法较地道。
9 mins
  -> thanks,确实有很多译成“抗辩制”的
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