congressional charter

Japanese translation: 連邦議会認定

06:11 Sep 17, 2008
English to Japanese translations [PRO]
Bus/Financial - Government / Politics
English term or phrase: congressional charter
米国の連邦議会に関する用語です。

Wikipediaなどにもエントリーがあるので、
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_charter
だいたい内容は分かるのですが、対応する日本語が分かりません。

文脈としては、
- National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was established by a congressional charter....
また、動詞としても使用されています。
- ...organizations chartered by Congress
- Congressionally chartered organizations
など。

よろしくお願いします。
nordlys75
Japan
Local time: 04:16
Japanese translation:連邦議会認定
Explanation:
「連邦議会特許」と訳すことも可能かと思いますが、「特許」は現在では"PATENT"の意味に解釈されてしまいますので「連邦議会認定」としてみました。

以下の説明によりますと、慈善団体、愛国的団体、史跡保存団体、教育団体などの非営利・公益団体に対して連邦議会が「名目的な」お墨付きを与えるもので、この認定を受けた団体はPRESTIGEが上がって言わば世間体が良くなりますが、政府が何らかの保証を与えたと誤解されかねないのでこの認定は現在はほぼ封印状態にあるそうです:

The chartering by Congress of organizations with a patriotic, charitable, historical, or educational purpose is essentially a 20 th century practice. There are currently some 91 nonprofit corporations listed in Title 36, Subtitle II, of the U .S. Code. These so-called "Title 36 corporations," such as the Girl Scouts of America and the National Academy of Public Administration, are typically incorporated first under state law, later requesting that Congress grant them a charter.
Chartered corporations listed in Title 36 are not agencies of the United States, and the charter does not assign the corporate bodies any governmental attributes . For instance, the corporation's debt is not guaranteed, explicitly or implicitly, by the full faith and credit of the United States. The attraction of Title 36 status for national organizations is that it tends to provide an "official" imprimatur to their activities, and to that extent it may provide them prestige and indirect financial benefit.
In recent years, some in Congress have expressed concern that the public may be misled by its chartering process into believing that somehow the U .S. government approves and supervises the corporations, when in fact this is not the case . As a consequence, in 1989 the House Judiciary Committee decided upon a moratorium on granting new charters . (The Senate generally defers to the House on chartering matters.) This moratorium has been reaffirmed by the Committee at the beginning of each Congress since. On several recent occasions, however, the full Congress has established Title 36 corporations on its own plenary authority.
http://www.llsdc.net/sourcebook/docs/CRS-RL30340.pdf

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 17時間 (2008-09-17 23:38:57 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Congressional Charter"によって公益団体を設立するケースもあるようですので、その場合は「連邦議会の議決で設立された」という訳の方が適切でしょうね。ただし"Congressional Charter"がたんなるお墨付きの付与に過ぎないケースの方が"more common"だそうです:

------------------------------
Some charters create corporate entities and is akin to being incorporated at the federal level. Examples of such charters are the Federal Reserve Bank, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Other national level groups with such charters are the American Red Cross, National Park Foundation and the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
More common is a charter that recognizes a group already incorporated at the state level. These mostly honorific charters tend "to provide an 'official' imprimatur to their activities, and to that extent it may provide them prestige and indirect financial benefit." [1] Groups that fall into this group are usually veterans groups, fraternal groups or youth groups like the Girl Scouts of the USA or the Boy Scouts of America. Congress has chartered about 100 fraternal or patriotic groups.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_charter
------------------------------

一般的な"charter"の定義:

A charter is the grant of authority or rights.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_(disambiguation)


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1日54分 (2008-09-18 07:05:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"congressional charter"を「議会憲章」と訳せない文例:

The American Red Cross was organized (1881) by Clara Barton and received its first federal charter in 1900. In 1905, it was brought into closer relationship with the government when a new congressional charter was granted.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-RedCross.html


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1日5時間 (2008-09-18 11:44:37 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Congressional Charter"を「連邦議会憲章」と訳したり、「法律」であると解釈できない文例:

1785
Bank of America's Congressional charter is revoked: However the bank subsequently acquires a new charter from the state government of Delaware
http://delong.typepad.com/american_economic_history/2008/09/...

このような文例における"Congressional Charter"は、「連邦議会特許」的な訳にならざるを得ないでしょう。
Selected response from:

patent_pending
Local time: 04:16
Grading comment
丁寧なご説明と補足情報をありがとうございます。微妙な話のようで、文脈によっても変わるようですね。確かに、対象となっている団体が設立されたのは昔の話なので、以前はそのような形で「お墨付き」を与えていたということなのですね。ありがとうございました。
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +3連邦議会認定
patent_pending
4 +1議会憲章
madamejuju
3議会の憲章
mikey71 (X)
3連邦議会の議決で設立された/議決宣言によって設立された
Prasad Bakre
Summary of reference entries provided
cinefil

  

Answers


11 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
連邦議会の議決で設立された/議決宣言によって設立された


Explanation:
以上の訳になる可能性が高いと思います。
Congressionalとは「Congress (集会・議会)の決定によりもの」という意味でCharterとは「憲章・宣言」という直訳ですが、Remiさんに提供された文脈上では機関の設立を促した最高意思決定機関という意味合いが含まれます。なので以上の訳になるとおもいますが、いかがでしょうか。

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 13 mins (2008-09-17 06:24:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

ちょっと間違いを訂正させていただきます。

Congressionalとは「Congress (集会・議会)の決定による」という意味で

以上です。

Prasad Bakre
Japan
Local time: 04:16
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in MarathiMarathi
Notes to answerer
Asker: ご回答ありがとうございました。コメントが参考になりました。


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  humbird: よいと思いますが、多少説明的で長すぎないでしょうか?
17 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

15 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
議会の憲章


Explanation:
たぶんこれではないですかね?
文脈的にも合っていると思います

Google翻訳で訳してみました


    Reference: http://translate.google.co.jp/translate_t?hl=ja#en|ja|congre...
mikey71 (X)
Japan
Local time: 04:16
Native speaker of: Native in JapaneseJapanese
Notes to answerer
Asker: ありがとうございました。

Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
議会憲章


Explanation:
”Congress”は合衆国と中南米のいくつかの国の議会システムです。国会、議会などと訳せます。なので、”議会憲章によって認証された”となるのでは。


    Reference: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/kagaku/pico/research/NA/06_07_11_NA_d...
madamejuju
Local time: 03:16
Native speaker of: Native in JapaneseJapanese
Notes to answerer
Asker: 確かにcharter=憲章 ですよね。 今回は「憲章」というのが文章中ではっきりしないのですが、別の場面では「憲章」と訳せるかも知れません。ありがとうございました。 


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Minoru Kuwahara: 憲章に則って設立された、あるいは憲章に基づいた組織、などとすれば日本語としては落ち着きそうです。私は米国についての charter も "憲章" と訳して差し支えないのではないかと思います。ただ、どれが適切かというのはなかなかむずかしい問題です。http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_charter -
8 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
連邦議会認定


Explanation:
「連邦議会特許」と訳すことも可能かと思いますが、「特許」は現在では"PATENT"の意味に解釈されてしまいますので「連邦議会認定」としてみました。

以下の説明によりますと、慈善団体、愛国的団体、史跡保存団体、教育団体などの非営利・公益団体に対して連邦議会が「名目的な」お墨付きを与えるもので、この認定を受けた団体はPRESTIGEが上がって言わば世間体が良くなりますが、政府が何らかの保証を与えたと誤解されかねないのでこの認定は現在はほぼ封印状態にあるそうです:

The chartering by Congress of organizations with a patriotic, charitable, historical, or educational purpose is essentially a 20 th century practice. There are currently some 91 nonprofit corporations listed in Title 36, Subtitle II, of the U .S. Code. These so-called "Title 36 corporations," such as the Girl Scouts of America and the National Academy of Public Administration, are typically incorporated first under state law, later requesting that Congress grant them a charter.
Chartered corporations listed in Title 36 are not agencies of the United States, and the charter does not assign the corporate bodies any governmental attributes . For instance, the corporation's debt is not guaranteed, explicitly or implicitly, by the full faith and credit of the United States. The attraction of Title 36 status for national organizations is that it tends to provide an "official" imprimatur to their activities, and to that extent it may provide them prestige and indirect financial benefit.
In recent years, some in Congress have expressed concern that the public may be misled by its chartering process into believing that somehow the U .S. government approves and supervises the corporations, when in fact this is not the case . As a consequence, in 1989 the House Judiciary Committee decided upon a moratorium on granting new charters . (The Senate generally defers to the House on chartering matters.) This moratorium has been reaffirmed by the Committee at the beginning of each Congress since. On several recent occasions, however, the full Congress has established Title 36 corporations on its own plenary authority.
http://www.llsdc.net/sourcebook/docs/CRS-RL30340.pdf

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 17時間 (2008-09-17 23:38:57 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Congressional Charter"によって公益団体を設立するケースもあるようですので、その場合は「連邦議会の議決で設立された」という訳の方が適切でしょうね。ただし"Congressional Charter"がたんなるお墨付きの付与に過ぎないケースの方が"more common"だそうです:

------------------------------
Some charters create corporate entities and is akin to being incorporated at the federal level. Examples of such charters are the Federal Reserve Bank, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Other national level groups with such charters are the American Red Cross, National Park Foundation and the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
More common is a charter that recognizes a group already incorporated at the state level. These mostly honorific charters tend "to provide an 'official' imprimatur to their activities, and to that extent it may provide them prestige and indirect financial benefit." [1] Groups that fall into this group are usually veterans groups, fraternal groups or youth groups like the Girl Scouts of the USA or the Boy Scouts of America. Congress has chartered about 100 fraternal or patriotic groups.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_charter
------------------------------

一般的な"charter"の定義:

A charter is the grant of authority or rights.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_(disambiguation)


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1日54分 (2008-09-18 07:05:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"congressional charter"を「議会憲章」と訳せない文例:

The American Red Cross was organized (1881) by Clara Barton and received its first federal charter in 1900. In 1905, it was brought into closer relationship with the government when a new congressional charter was granted.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-RedCross.html


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1日5時間 (2008-09-18 11:44:37 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Congressional Charter"を「連邦議会憲章」と訳したり、「法律」であると解釈できない文例:

1785
Bank of America's Congressional charter is revoked: However the bank subsequently acquires a new charter from the state government of Delaware
http://delong.typepad.com/american_economic_history/2008/09/...

このような文例における"Congressional Charter"は、「連邦議会特許」的な訳にならざるを得ないでしょう。


patent_pending
Local time: 04:16
Native speaker of: Native in TetumTetum
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
丁寧なご説明と補足情報をありがとうございます。微妙な話のようで、文脈によっても変わるようですね。確かに、対象となっている団体が設立されたのは昔の話なので、以前はそのような形で「お墨付き」を与えていたということなのですね。ありがとうございました。

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  sigmalanguage: 確かに、この場合のcharterは「お墨つき」という意味に近いと思います。訳としては「認定」「公認」「免許」といったところでしょうか。
10 hrs

agree  humbird: これは米国の話ですから連邦議会としたのはよいと思います。歴史的にはcharterとは国家最高権力者が出す認可のことで、植民地時代には英国王が出したものです。その伝統を国王のいない米国が受け継いで、国家最高権力機関としての議会が出すのが congressional charter なのでよいと思います。動詞なら「認可された」でよいと思います。
11 hrs

agree  Minoru Kuwahara: 背景が合衆国のため "連邦" を普通に頭に付けるという点で humbird さんのご意見に voting です。筋の情報を見ると、これは米国議会を通過した、諸団体の使命・権限・活動等を明文化した法律であることが分かります。連邦憲章としても恐らく良く、18世紀から何と1992年まで発行されていたそうです。"Congressional or Federal Charters" という表記もあります。‐
13 hrs
  -> 「諸団体の使命・権限・活動等を明文化した法律」という定義は、Congressional Charterにもとづいて設立された団体の場合は該当しますが、名目的なお墨付きとしてどこかの団体に付与される場合は当てはまりませんね。
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Reference comments


2 days 5 hrs
Reference

Reference information:
charter
1 証書
□一般に, 当事者間でなされた agreement (合意)ないし promise (約束)に関する証拠文書.
5 特許状
□主権者たる国王や立法府が, 会社, 大学等を設立し(法人格の付与), 一定の行為能力を付与する document (証書). 転じて, articles of incorporation (基本定款)の意味に用いられることもある.
英米法辞典、東京大学出版局

cinefil
Japan
Native speaker of: Native in JapaneseJapanese
PRO pts in category: 20
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)



Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs (or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.

KudoZ™ translation help

The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.


See also:

Your current localization setting

English

Select a language

Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search