18:23 Feb 2, 2012
English to Polish translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - History / English law, Middle Ages
English term or phrase: customs
W znaczeniu:

Tribute, service, or rent paid by a feudal tenant to a lord.
Local time: 23:57

Summary of answers provided

Discussion entries: 4



2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5

świadczenie o charakterze przymusowym, funkcjonujące w średniowieczu, uiszczane monarsze przez poddanych

Local time: 23:57
Native speaker of: Native in PolishPolish
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8 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5

świadczenie pieniężne lub rzeczowe



Customary rules which formed one basis for local administration of justice; some features of these heark back to Anglo-Saxon traditions – the local practices which were established (in a non-literate age) as law through repetitive application, while others are the product of specific ordinances made by borough governments during the Late Middle Ages. Although these customs may vary in details from one borough to another, most reflect the same general concerns and preoccupations. When these rules were compiled in lists, as reference tools for town officers, the resulting document was called a "custumal".

The term "customs" was also applied to customary dues (monetary, in-kind, or personal service) owed to the king or to some other lord of a territory.

A third use of the term was for duties payable on merchandise being imported or exported; these customs might be for the profit of the town levying them (although, to avoid confusion, I have used the term "tolls" for these) or be part of the national system of customs collection

Native speaker of: Native in PolishPolish
PRO pts in category: 34
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