...абсолюты, выношенные Аристотелем с таким трудолюбивым оптимизмом...
To make thing slightly more clear, pls look over the following text:
Impressed by the absolute unity of all things, the adherents Eleaticism (see
PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS AND DOCTRINES: Eleaticism), so-named from its centre in Elea, a Greek colony in southern Italy, found it impossible to believe in multiplicity and change. The first step in this direction was taken by Xenophanes, a religious thinker and rhapsodist, who, on rational grounds, moved from the gods and goddesses of Homer and Hesiod to a unitary principle of the divine. He believed that God is the supreme power of the universe, ruling all things by the power of his mind.
Unmoved, unmoving, and unitary, God perceives, governs, and apparently contains, or at least he "embraces," all things. So interpreted, Xenophanes provides an instance of monistic pantheism, inasmuch as, in this view, the
Absolute God is united with a changing world, while the reality of neither is attenuated. This paradox may have encouraged _Parmenides_, possibly one of Xenophanes' disciples (according to _Aristotle_), to accept the changeless Absolute, eliminating change and motion from the world. Reality thus became for him a unitary, indivisible, everlasting, motionless whole. This position is basically that of absolutistic monistic pantheism in that it views the world as real but changeless.
Insofar as the change and variety of the world are only apparent, Parmenides also approaches acosmic pantheism.
Aristotle's approach to ethics is teleological; that is, he discusses _ethics_ not in terms of _moral absolutes_ but in terms of what is conducive to man's good. This approach leads him to examine various kinds of good and to arrive at the identification of the highest good with the attainment of happiness. After careful discussion of the problematic concept of happiness, Aristotle arrives at a definition of happiness as _activity of the soul in accordance with virtue_.
Автор Вашего пассажа высказывает эдакую стратсность и удивленность, не лишенную, впрочем, определенной доли легкой иронии и самоиронии. Именно такого ключа и надо придерживаться при переводе текста. Помните "умел он с легкостью..."
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