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Explanation: The phrase "how are you doing this afternoon?" cannot be translated literally. Whether it is perfectly correct to ask in english "HOW ARE YOU DOING THIS AFTERNOON", in spanish the words "this afternoon" ( esta tarde) are not used. Why aren't they used? Because they are considered too obvious.
Though sometimes one hears somebody ask in Spanish: ¿Cómo estás esta tarde? that question is not correct and is only proper of a person with a poor education.
My suggestion is to simply say: ¿Cómo estás?