most stable valence of carbon in CO2

English translation: ... and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule

12:41 Jul 17, 2020
English language (monolingual) [PRO]
Science - Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
English term or phrase: most stable valence of carbon in CO2
I don't know enough about this to know what the right way of putting it is. Valence? Valency? This was written by a non-native Spanish speaker. I'm fixing it up for publication in a scientific journal. I can't find any hits with "most stable valency/valence of carbon" or similar. I think that must be wrong. I'm also not sure about the use of roman numerals.

Unfortunately, carbon in CO2 is in its most stable valence (IV) and is a very stable molecule (Gf0 = -394.228 kJ/mol).
S Ben Price
Spain
Local time: 06:04
Selected answer:... and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule
Explanation:
Unfortunately, carbon in CO2 is in its most stable valence (IV) and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule (Gf0 = -394.228 kJ/mol).

The "IV" means 1 carbon atom contributes 4 electrons in the bond with 2 oxygen atoms. I think that is OK.
https://www.sciencequiz.net/newjcscience/jcchemistry/bonding...

The main thing is that CO2 is a very stable molecule, not carbon (which is an atom, not molecule).

I think the article wants to say that unfortunately CO2 is a very stable molecule, therefore it is hard to break it up (into carbon and oxygen).
Selected response from:

Kiet Bach
United States
Local time: 21:04
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



SUMMARY OF ALL EXPLANATIONS PROVIDED
4... and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule
Kiet Bach
5 -1Carbon in CO2 is a very stable molecule because C valance has 4 electrons (1s2 2s2)
AJ Ablooglu
4 -1Quaternary carbon in CO2 is in the most stable state
Amir Akbarpour Reihani
Summary of reference entries provided
Daryo

Discussion entries: 5





  

Answers


7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
most stable valence of carbon in co2
... and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule


Explanation:
Unfortunately, carbon in CO2 is in its most stable valence (IV) and therefore CO2 is a very stable molecule (Gf0 = -394.228 kJ/mol).

The "IV" means 1 carbon atom contributes 4 electrons in the bond with 2 oxygen atoms. I think that is OK.
https://www.sciencequiz.net/newjcscience/jcchemistry/bonding...

The main thing is that CO2 is a very stable molecule, not carbon (which is an atom, not molecule).

I think the article wants to say that unfortunately CO2 is a very stable molecule, therefore it is hard to break it up (into carbon and oxygen).

Kiet Bach
United States
Local time: 21:04
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Daryo: good explanation, but it's not very clear what is Asker in fact asking for. An explanation or a rewording of the text???
2 hrs
  -> The asker said he was "fixing it up for publication"
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16 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
Carbon in CO2 is a very stable molecule because C valance has 4 electrons (1s2 2s2)


Explanation:
Each element has electron shell(s) orbiting their nucleus and valance is the last or outer most orbit where number of electrons in this valence shell defines potential reactivity of that particular element. In other words the valance electrons are available for chemical bond formation.
As an American and as a chemist i use valance, however “valency” is used in British English.
Instead of using roman numerals the valance electrons should be defined with “s” such as 1s1 for H.

Regarding reactivity: the valance shell accommodates 8 electrons (valence shell electron octet, except “H”). Elements with 8 electrons are nobel gases and they are inert (nonreactive) therefore any element with less than 8 electrons can be considered reactive. However “C” (or carbon group elements) are the most stable elements because they are right in the middle of the spectrum, where they have 4 electrons. In other words elements with 1 to 3 valance electrons are considered “donors” and elements with 5 to 7 valance electrons are considered “acceptors.” Thus they make chemical bonds by combining their valance electrons to 8. As you can see because Carbon has 4 electrons it is neither a donor nor it is an acceptor. Therefore bonding with C is considered very stable.

Thus I would have rephrased the author’s statement:
“Carbon in CO2 is a very stable molecule because C valance has 4 electrons (1s2 2s2).”

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Note added at 16 hrs (2020-07-18 05:17:28 GMT)
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Well it should have been the following sorry:
“CO2 is a very stable molecule because carbon valance has 4 electrons (1s2 2s2).”


    https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/intro2.htm
AJ Ablooglu
Turkey
Local time: 00:04
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Daryo: "carbon in CO2" is not a molecule, but an atom - if you start by mixing that ... FYI I know perfectly well the difference between an atom, a molecule, and just some few more concepts from organic and inorganic chemistry since few decades ago
13 hrs
  -> Are you a chemist? Clearly you have no idea what you are talking about. FYI Molecule, a group of two or more atoms that form the smallest identifiable unit (molecule | Definition, Examples, Structures, & Facts | Britannica)
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41 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
Quaternary carbon in CO2 is in the most stable state


Explanation:
The valence or valency is the ability of an element to combine with other atoms. It's not a state, but a degree or measure, that is, it can increase or decrease. Therefore,
Unfortunately, carbon in CO2 is in the highest valence number (IV), so carbon dioxide is a very stable molecule (Gf0 = -394.228 kJ/mol).

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Note added at 17 hrs (2020-07-18 06:31:38 GMT)
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Valence cannot be stabilised, and in the second clause, carbon dioxide is a molecule, not carbon.

Amir Akbarpour Reihani
Local time: 08:34
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in Farsi (Persian)Farsi (Persian), Native in TurkishTurkish, Native in Persian (Farsi)Persian (Farsi)

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Daryo: it's not the carbon atom that is "stable" it's the bond between the carbon atom and surrounding atoms // in chemical reactions the carbon atom itself is always "stable" (is not going to split /to "disintegrate" - it's the molecule that might
7 hrs
  -> "Quaternary carbon is in the most stable state" means the carbon is not reactive. We are not talking about O=C=O bonds. We are talking about the energy state of the quaternary carbon in CO2. What did you prove in your reference? Please explain!
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Reference comments


9 hrs
Reference

Reference information:
CO2 Reduction: From the Electrochemical to Photochemical Approach
Jinghua Wu
Yang Huang
Wen Ye
Yanguang Li
First published: 12 September 2017
https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201700194
Citations: 162
...

2 Fundamentals of Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction

CO2 is one of the most stable molecules due to the strong CO double bond with bonding energy of 750 kJ mol−1—considerably larger than that of CC (336 kJ mol−1), CO (327 kJ mol−1), or CH bond (411 kJ mol−1). CO2 reduction via either the electrocatalytic or the photocatalytic approach is a thermodynamically uphill reaction and demands significant energy input to break the CO bond. To make it even more complicated, CO2 reduction may proceed via several different reaction pathways with the transfer of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 or even more electrons and yielding diverse reduction products including carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and many others depending on the nature of the electrocatalysts or photocatalysts as well as the actual experimental conditions.27, 28 As a result, electrocatalytic or photocatalytic CO2 reduction is generally suffered from very limited efficiency and poor selectivity.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.201700194


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Note added at 1 day 6 hrs (2020-07-18 19:11:10 GMT)
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regarding "IV"



2. COVALENT BONDING, OCTET RULE, POLARITY,AND BASIC TYPES OF FORMULAS

LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo introduce the basic principles of covalent bonding, different types of molecular representations, bondpolarity and its role in electronic density distributions, and physical properties of molecules.

VALENCE ELECTRONS

They are those found in the highest energy level of the atom, or outer shell. In the periodic table, the number of valence electrons is given by the group number. For example, in the second row, the nonmetals are:

BORON Group III 3 valence electrons2s2, 2p1
CARBON Group IV 4 valence electrons2s2, 2p2
NITROGEN Group V 5 valence electrons2s2, 2p3
OXYGEN Group VI 6 valence electrons2s2, 2p4
FLUORINE Group VII 7 valence electrons 2s2, 2p5

OCTET RULE
....

https://personal.utdallas.edu/~scortes/ochem/OChem1_Lecture/...

IOW: nothing wrong with it ...

Daryo
United Kingdom
Native speaker of: Native in SerbianSerbian, Native in FrenchFrench
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