spelt / farro / wheat grain

English translation: wheat grain > farro ≥ spelt

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:spelt / farro / wheat grain
Selected answer:wheat grain > farro ≥ spelt
Entered by: Charles Davis

16:14 Oct 28, 2014
English language (monolingual) [PRO]
Cooking / Culinary / Cooking ingredients
English term or phrase: spelt / farro / wheat grain
As far as I understand, all 3 terms have the same translation in French "i.e. épeautre", spelt being more common than the other 2.
Can anyone explain the difference, if any?
Thanks in advance and best regards
Maryline Pinton
France
Local time: 02:30
wheat grain > farro ≥ spelt
Explanation:
I think these three terms need to be asked together, since what you want to know is the relationship between them.

These three terms are not mutually exclusive. Wheat grain (FR [grain de] blé]) is the grain of any species of wheat (Triticum spp.).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blé

Farro and spelt are both particular kinds of wheat grain.

Farro is an Italian term, also used in English. It can be exactly the same thing as spelt, or it can denote another species, known in English as Emmer (Triticum dicoccum), or indeed einkorn (Triticum monococcum).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farro

Spelt is a specific species of wheat, Triticum spelta, and this is épeautre in FR.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spelt
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Épeautre

So then spelt is épeautre, farro is often épeautre, and wheat grain is blé. To put it another way, farro is a subset of wheat grain and spelt is a subset of farro, though they are often synonyms.

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Note added at 16 hrs (2014-10-29 08:55:29 GMT)
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I presume that the question for you, ultimately, is how to translate these terms into FR, and of course to do that you need to know what they refer to when they are used in EN texts. This is a very difficult question, since naming conventions in culinary texts may not coincide with scientific terminology. What does seem likely to me is that "wheat grain" will be either a generic term referring to any kind of wheat, as opposed to another cereal such rye, barley, oats or millet, or else a specific kind of wheat that is not spelt or farro and therefore not épeautre.

Spelt is épeautre, and will normally, if not always, refer to grand épeautre.

Farro, primarily associated with Italy, seems to be used primarily to refer to what is called engrain or petit épeautre in FR.

So I would tentatively suggest that a workable scheme might be to use blé for wheat grain, épeautre for spelt and engrain for farro. But I stress that this is tentative, and an EN-FR translator specialising in this area might have another suggestion.
Selected response from:

Charles Davis
Spain
Local time: 02:30
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



SUMMARY OF ALL EXPLANATIONS PROVIDED
4 +6wheat grain > farro ≥ spelt
Charles Davis
Summary of reference entries provided
Epautre and petit épautre are not the same!
B D Finch

Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


21 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +6
wheat grain > farro ≥ spelt


Explanation:
I think these three terms need to be asked together, since what you want to know is the relationship between them.

These three terms are not mutually exclusive. Wheat grain (FR [grain de] blé]) is the grain of any species of wheat (Triticum spp.).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blé

Farro and spelt are both particular kinds of wheat grain.

Farro is an Italian term, also used in English. It can be exactly the same thing as spelt, or it can denote another species, known in English as Emmer (Triticum dicoccum), or indeed einkorn (Triticum monococcum).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farro

Spelt is a specific species of wheat, Triticum spelta, and this is épeautre in FR.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spelt
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Épeautre

So then spelt is épeautre, farro is often épeautre, and wheat grain is blé. To put it another way, farro is a subset of wheat grain and spelt is a subset of farro, though they are often synonyms.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 16 hrs (2014-10-29 08:55:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I presume that the question for you, ultimately, is how to translate these terms into FR, and of course to do that you need to know what they refer to when they are used in EN texts. This is a very difficult question, since naming conventions in culinary texts may not coincide with scientific terminology. What does seem likely to me is that "wheat grain" will be either a generic term referring to any kind of wheat, as opposed to another cereal such rye, barley, oats or millet, or else a specific kind of wheat that is not spelt or farro and therefore not épeautre.

Spelt is épeautre, and will normally, if not always, refer to grand épeautre.

Farro, primarily associated with Italy, seems to be used primarily to refer to what is called engrain or petit épeautre in FR.

So I would tentatively suggest that a workable scheme might be to use blé for wheat grain, épeautre for spelt and engrain for farro. But I stress that this is tentative, and an EN-FR translator specialising in this area might have another suggestion.

Charles Davis
Spain
Local time: 02:30
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Maria Fokin: you sum it up perfectly. translating the term farro has given me a headache or two in the past.
14 mins
  -> Thanks very much, Maria :)

agree  Jack Doughty
24 mins
  -> Thanks, Jack :)

agree  acetran
11 hrs
  -> Thanks, acetran :)

agree  Alison Sabedoria (X)
15 hrs
  -> Thanks, Alison :)

agree  B D Finch
16 hrs
  -> Thanks!

agree  Charlesp
17 hrs
  -> Thanks, Charles :)
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Reference comments


4 hrs peer agreement (net): +2
Reference: Epautre and petit épautre are not the same!

Reference information:
"L'épeautre (Triticum spelta), appelé aussi « blé des Gaulois », est une céréale proche du blé mais vêtue (le grain reste couvert de sa balle lors de la récolte).

Cette espèce est aussi appelée « grand épeautre » par opposition au « petit épeautre » ou engrain, autre espèce de céréale rustique du genre Triticum, ou au « farro » (Triticum dicoccum) cultivé en Italie. On parle aussi de "moyen épeautre" pour l'amidonnier. Le grand épeautre est considéré par certains auteurs[Qui ?] comme une sous-espèce du blé tendre (Triticum aestivum) sous le nom de Triticum aestivum L. subsp. spelta (L.) Thell."

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spelt
"About the origin of European spelt (Triticum spelta L.): allelic differentiation of the HMW Glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 subunit genes."

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engrain
"L’engrain ou petit épeautre (Triticum monococcum) est une plante de la famille des poacées (graminées), première céréale domestiquée par l'homme, vers -7500, au Proche-Orient, avec le blé amidonnier1."

www.einkorn.com/triticum-monococcum/
"Triticum monococcum is the domesticated form of einkorn wheat, also know as einkorn farro."

http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/topics/celiac.html
"The scientific name for bread wheat is Triticum aestivum--the first part of the name defines the genus (Triticum) and the second part, the species (aestivum). Species falling in the genus Triticum are almost certain to be harmful to celiac patients. Grain proteins of these species include the various types characteristic of the gluten proteins found in bread wheats (including the alpha-gliadins) that cause damage to the small intestine in celiac disease. Some Triticum species of current concern include Triticum spelta (common names include spelt or spelta), Triticum polonicum (common names include Polish wheat, and, recently, Kamut), and Triticum monococcum (common names include einkorn and small spelt). I recommend that celiac patients avoid grain from these species. "

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 16 hrs (2014-10-29 09:09:12 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Triticum spelta: spelt, épautre, grand épautre,
Triticum monococcum: small spelt, petit épautre, einkorn, einkorn farro, engrain
Triticum dicoccum: farro
Triticum polonicum: Polish wheat, kamut

"Engrain" seems to be a direct gallicisation of "einkorn".

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Note added at 17 hrs (2014-10-29 09:19:14 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Triticum dicoccum is also known in English as emmer, starch wheat or two-grain spelt and in French as amidonnier. However, to confuse things further, there are two subspecies known in French as épautre de mars and épautre noir.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmer
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amidonnier


    Reference: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89peautre
    Reference: http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/topics/celiac.html
B D Finch
France
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this reference comment (and responses from the reference poster)
agree  Alison Sabedoria (X)
11 hrs
  -> Thanks Alison
agree  Charles Davis: The plot thickens. Here, it seems, we get into country-specific usages. If EN says small spelt, we have enkorn farro/petit épeautre/engrain, but if it just says spelt we probably have (grand) épeautre, though we might possibly have engrain?
11 hrs
  -> Thanks Charles. See added note, above.
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