the lack of

English translation: too little (see context)

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:the lack of
English translation:too little (see context)
Entered by: RHELLER

01:41 Oct 28, 2004
English to English translations [PRO]
Social Sciences - Government / Politics / - contextual meaning
English term or phrase: the lack of
Despite Aliev’s wishes, Turkish and American troops were not permanently stationed in his country, and Azerbaijan was denied direct American aid through the Freedom Support Act because of the conflict with Armenia and ***the lack of democratization.***

Could you tell me your opinion on the meaning of the highlighted piece? To me the choice is between "the absence of" and "too little of", but it's an important choice :=]

Thank you very much.
Mikhail Kropotov
Russian Federation
Local time: 12:53
too little of
Explanation:
difficult to know for sure but
otherwise they probably would have said "a total lack of"
Selected response from:

RHELLER
United States
Local time: 03:53
Grading comment
Thank you.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +6missing of/absence of
Nizamettin Yigit
4 +4absence of
Deborah Workman
5 +2comment below
Balaban Cerit
3 +3too little of
RHELLER
4Deficient in
conejo
5 -1the deficiency of
Lys Nguyen


Discussion entries: 5





  

Answers


3 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +3
too little of


Explanation:
difficult to know for sure but
otherwise they probably would have said "a total lack of"

RHELLER
United States
Local time: 03:53
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 20
Grading comment
Thank you.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Balaban Cerit: see comment below
1 hr
  -> thanks Balaban :-)

agree  Julie Roy: I agree, there is "some" democratization, but hardly enough
4 hrs

neutral  Ian M-H: without "of"
6 hrs

agree  Olga B
13 hrs
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7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Deficient in


Explanation:
In my personal opinion, "lack of X" usually means there is very little of X, and it needs more of X.

From Merriam-Webster:

1 : to be deficient or missing <time is lacking for a full explanation>
2 : to be short or have need of something <he will not lack for advisers>
transitive senses : to stand in need of : suffer from the absence or deficiency of <lack the necessities of life>


    Reference: http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=lac...
conejo
United States
Local time: 04:53
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Ian M-H: The definition's fine, but "deficient in" doesn't fit this sentence.
6 hrs
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12 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +4
absence of


Explanation:
lack: the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; "there is a serious lack of insight into the problem"; "water is the critical deficiency in desert regions"; "for want of a nail the shoe was lost"
www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn

lack: be without; "This soup lacks salt"; "There is something missing in my jewellery box!"
www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 23 mins (2004-10-28 02:05:35 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I think the author is saying that because the country did not demonstrate democratic process or actions toward a democratic process, Azerbaijan was denied aid. Whether one is talking about a lack of democracy or a lack of democratization (efforts to make a democracy), the point is that those who determine whether \"democracy\" or \"democratization\" exist considered that they (democracy/democratization) did not.

\"Lack\" is determined by the speaker. The person who says the soup lacks salt doesn\'t consider the soup salted until his/her subjective taste is satisfied. There may in fact be salt in the soup. If your author thinks that there\'s a lack of democratization, I think you have to render it that way, whether the claim is accurate or not.

Deborah Workman
United States
Local time: 05:53
Works in field
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  nlingua: good explanation
16 mins
  -> Thank you!

agree  Romina Riestra
1 hr

agree  Ian M-H
6 hrs

agree  zaphod
7 hrs
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7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +6
missing of/absence of


Explanation:
I understand as missing or absence of democratization.

If it was otherwise, a better word suc as poor, not enough, etc could have been used...



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 10 mins (2004-10-28 01:51:47 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Either Father Aliyev or later on this year his successor son Aliyev\' sitting on high chair helps you to understand that as \"absence\".


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 37 mins (2004-10-28 02:19:23 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

To clarify misunderstanding, I have no problem son succeding father after an open and internationally observed election. What I have problem with father sat there after a cuope and son used opression to eliminate against woters etc...Election preocess were not confirmed as successfull open election by independent observers.

Nizamettin Yigit
Turkey
Local time: 12:53
Works in field
Native speaker of: Turkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  JM Simon: as democratization is a process, it is either present or not present; I don't think the Freedom Act has a differentiation between different levels of democratization, do they? :)
9 mins
  -> thnx. well..:) they also use "improving" improvement of freedoms, or democracy etc...If your reference is absolute democracy than I 100 percent agree.. But in that case there is hardly any model practical....

agree  nlingua: absence of
21 mins
  -> thnx

agree  Asghar Bhatti
23 mins
  -> thnx

agree  xxxgulser
30 mins
  -> thnx

agree  Narasimhan Raghavan
1 hr
  -> thnx

agree  Terence Ajbro
4 hrs
  -> thnx

agree  Saleh Chowdhury, Ph.D.
5 hrs
  -> thnx

disagree  Ian M-H: definitely not "missing of"
6 hrs
  -> :)...thnx

neutral  Refugio: Just as we in the United States would not have minded quite so much the accession of a Bush son to the presidency if the election process had not been so tainted.
1 day 14 hrs
  -> htnx. I agree. And I actually lived 2 elections in states. The most questionable and 2nd therm Clinton.
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
the deficiency of


Explanation:
--

Lys Nguyen
Vietnam
Local time: 16:53
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in VietnameseVietnamese

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Ian M-H: This doesn't sound natural to me here. ("Democracy" could be deficient.)
4 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
comment below


Explanation:
Note: this is not an answer to be graded, I just needed some more space to write a comment

I agree with Rita that the meaning here is "too little of".

I am not contesting Nizamettin's description of the real situation in Azerbaijan, on the contrary. I also agree with his comment on 'practical models'. I'm only trying to figure out what the writer meant in the article.

Since this choice is important for the asker, we have to figure out the writer's approach to the issue. The term used, "democratization" (or democratisation) means "democratic development": "the way democratic norms, institutions and practices evolve and are disseminated both within and across national and cultural boundaries"
http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13510347.asp
i.e. in the meaning of an ongoing process - the continuing action of making something democratic. To analyze a process, we can't just look at a single specific point or date. Of course, this also means that "democratization" is a relative concept, which can change according to how you look.

An example: "Azerbaijan achieved important progress in democratization in the late 1990s ... Unfortunately, these hopes were dashed on election day... The 2000 parliamentary elections in Azerbaijan were a missed opportunity not only for democratic development..."
http://www.cacianalyst.org/Publications/Cornell_JoD.htm

In this context, I think that "the lack of democratization" means "too little of". But when you assume it means "absence", you say "there is zero democratic development". Then some may ask who decides on the beginning and end of the interval of the 'process'.

For instance, the term "lack of democratization" has been also used for Russia, I don't think that it means 'absence' here:

Michael McFaul, speaking in the US House of Representatives:
"My third worry is ... that ... we are neglecting internal processes within Russia. First and foremost, I mean the process of democratization, or I should say rather the lack of democratization."
http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa77893.000/hf...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 days 6 hrs 2 mins (2004-10-30 07:44:26 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

On SirReaL\'s note on 30 Oct:

Yes, if we look from a mathematical viewpoint and strive to be just in measuring democratization, we could say, as you point out, that democratization could also mean the accumulated amount of all efforts aimed at democratizing the country. But again, who can say that this is absent or non-existent in Azerbaijan? This is a hard calculation to make, even for one\'s own country. And don\'t we also have to take into account the accumulated \'longing for democracy\' among the people (which of course is a very hard thing to measure)? Isn\'t that one of the integral factors in the process of democratization?

Balaban Cerit
Turkey
Local time: 12:53
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Turkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  RHELLER: yes, democracy is on a continuum; it's rarely an all or nothing deal
7 mins
  -> yes. unfortunately this prepares the ground for ambigious definitions which are used for different, sometimes conflicting purposes.

agree  Refugio
1 day 13 hrs
  -> thanks
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