mentally retarded

English translation: depends on the context

05:46 Jun 27, 2005
English to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general)
English term or phrase: mentally retarded
The reviewer of the paper said,
Mitsuko
Local time: 23:32
English translation:depends on the context
Explanation:
It depends on the context:

“Mental retardation” or “mentally retarded” are perfectly acceptable terms, widely used by medical professionals in a medical context.
However, ”developmentally delayed” or “mentally disabled” are preferred and recommended in the wider social context, to avoid the connotations of “mental retardation”.
In the UK, developmentally delayed persons are most often described/referred to as children or adults with learning difficulties.
Selected response from:

Elizabeth Rudin
United Kingdom
Local time: 15:32
Grading comment
Thank you very much!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +5depends on the context
Elizabeth Rudin
4 +1mental retardation a.k.a. mental deficiency
Mihaela Brooks
4 +1developmentally disabled
Robert Donahue (X)
4not for grading
RHELLER
3Explanation
fareedeh ghassemi (X)
3mentally challenged
Balasubramaniam L.
5 -3developmentally challanged
Charlesp


Discussion entries: 4





  

Answers


11 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
mentally challenged


Explanation:
Another safe way of putting it is:
mentally challenged

As in physically challenged.

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Note added at 16 mins (2005-06-27 06:03:17 GMT)
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From the following link, it appears that there is nothing wrong in using \"mentally retarded\". It seems to be a standard psychiatric term.

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The three traditional terms denoting varying degrees of mental deficiency long predate psychiatry. They were originally used in English as simple forms of abuse, and this is still the main usage. Their now obsolete use as psychiatric technical definitions is of purely historical interest. There have been some efforts made among mental health professionals to discourage use of these terms. Note that the term retard or tard is still used as a generic insult, especially among children.

Idiot indicated the greatest degree of mental deficiency, where the mental age is 2 years or less, and the person cannot guard himself against common physical dangers. The term was gradually replaced by the term profound mental retardation.
Imbecile indicated a mental deficiency less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe mental retardation and moderate mental retardation.
Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded in 1910, following work by Henry H. Goddard, as the term for an adult with a mental age between eight and twelve; mild mental retardation is now the term for this condition. Alternative definitions of these terms based on IQ were also used.

http://www.answers.com/mentally retarded

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Note added at 35 mins (2005-06-27 06:22:24 GMT)
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developmentally delayed and mentally retarded are synonyms according to this site:

Healthopedia.com - Mental Retardation (Developmentally Delayed ...
Mental Retardation. Alternate Names : Developmentally Delayed, Mentally Disabled.
Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors | Symptoms & Signs | Diagnosis & Tests ...
www.healthopedia.com/mental-retardation/



Balasubramaniam L.
India
Local time: 20:02
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Hindi
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Terence Ajbro: the problem is, though, this can mean anything, whereas the expression "mentally retarded" is a more meaningful designation of a mental condition. Understanding is thus sacrificed in the name of political correctness
4 mins
  -> True. "Mentally retarded" seems to me to be just fine too. Please see added note.

agree  Kirill Semenov: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_correctness#Examples
41 mins
  -> Thanks.

neutral  Dr Sue Levy (X): "mentally challenged" will not do in a scientific paper
54 mins
  -> Thanks.

neutral  Angela Dickson (X): agree with Sue
12 hrs
  -> Thanks.

neutral  RHELLER: not in my opinon
13 hrs
  -> Thanks.

disagree  Paula Vaz-Carreiro: In the UK at least, the word "challenged" associated with disability of any kind is always a kind of joke on political correctness!- as in, a person is not 'short' but 'vertically challenged'.
3 days 4 hrs
  -> Thanks.
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -3
developmentally challanged


Explanation:
(no, not developmentally delayed)

Charlesp
Sweden
Local time: 16:32
Native speaker of: English

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Sven Petersson: Undefined, meaningless political SONK.
9 mins
  -> hej Sven. Thanks for the comment, but that is the term the asker wanted. (What is SONK anyway?)

disagree  Angela Dickson (X): that's not often heard in scientific/medical contexts in my experience - 'delayed' can be an accurate term
10 hrs
  -> disagree

disagree  Paula Vaz-Carreiro: In the UK at least, the word "challenged" associated with disability of any kind is always a kind of joke on political correctness!- as in, a person is not 'short' but 'vertically challenged'.
3 days 2 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +5
depends on the context


Explanation:
It depends on the context:

“Mental retardation” or “mentally retarded” are perfectly acceptable terms, widely used by medical professionals in a medical context.
However, ”developmentally delayed” or “mentally disabled” are preferred and recommended in the wider social context, to avoid the connotations of “mental retardation”.
In the UK, developmentally delayed persons are most often described/referred to as children or adults with learning difficulties.


Elizabeth Rudin
United Kingdom
Local time: 15:32
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in HungarianHungarian, Native in RomanianRomanian
PRO pts in category: 60
Grading comment
Thank you very much!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Charlesp
2 hrs
  -> Thank you, Charles.

agree  Robert Donahue (X): I can't buy the argument that you use with Rita. Organizations can't just change their names to adapt to the times (taxes, printing costs, etc). Take the NAACP for example. Try calling someone "colored" nowadays in the US and see where that gets you. : )
4 hrs
  -> Thank you, Robert.

agree  Angela Dickson (X)
11 hrs
  -> Thank you, Angela.

neutral  RHELLER: sorry but mental retardation is no longer considered acceptable in the U.S. (and asker has not specified target country)
12 hrs
  -> More info at http://www.aamr.org/ - the American Association on Mental Retardation. There is even an American Journal on Mental Retardation (AJMR).

agree  aira07: I believe mentally retarded is a medically accepted term, but no longer PC in a wider social context such as comedy
2 days 1 hr
  -> Thank you, aira.

agree  Saleh Chowdhury, Ph.D.
5 days
  -> Thank you, Saleh.
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
Explanation


Explanation:
Mentally retarded is always used for mentally handicapped children as well as adults and it is normally incurable. But delayed in development such as delayed in cognitive abilities can be removed. using one of them depends on the text. Today psychologist prefer the next term, of course.


fareedeh ghassemi (X)
Local time: 19:02

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  RHELLER: sorry fareedeh - mentally retarded is no longer considered acceptable language in the U.S.
11 hrs
  -> Dear Rita: I couldn't see your comment untill now, I wanted to say developmentally disabled or delayed in development is preferd.
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14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
not for grading


Explanation:
because of the excited responses to my comments - I now have to justify my comments - all because the asker has not properly formulated a question which explains the target audience and target country.
there are nuances - I am aware of it -

Caremark.com
Mental retardation is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ...
www.caremark.com/.../5522/.cmd/ad/.pm/-/.c/ 1703/.ce/5535/.p/3711/_s.155/5522?PC_3711_docid=CMS-2-MM000878 - 53k

RHELLER
United States
Local time: 08:32
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Mihaela Brooks: Why the DSM terminology I already mentioned is acceptable to you now?// I fully understand 'nuances', I wonder if you understand "neither"..moreover in US metnal retardation is fully accepted./next time do your homework
30 mins
  -> do you not understand the word nuance?I am just as entitled to my opinion as you are -
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50 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
mental retardation a.k.a. mental deficiency


Explanation:
DSM IVTR includes mental retardedness as one of the abnormal behaviours

WHAT IS MENTAL RETARDATION?
Definition
The DSM-1V2 defines mental retardation as follows:


Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning-ie, an IQ of approximately 70 or below.

Deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning.

Onset before age 18 years.



mental retardation
n.
Subnormal intellectual development as a result of congenital causes, brain injury, or disease and characterized by any of various cognitive deficiencies, including impaired learning, social, and vocational ability. Also called ****mental deficiency****.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mental-retardation


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Note added at 15 hrs 0 min (2005-06-27 20:47:16 GMT)
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994, the main diagnostic reference of Mental Health professionals in the United States of America.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994, the main diagnostic reference of Mental Health professionals in the United States of America.
http://www.psychologynet.org/dsm.html
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (DSM)IV

Fourth Edition
The standard diagnostic tool used by mental health professionals worldwide to promote reliable research, accurate diagnosis, and thus appropriate treatment and patient care. Each psychiatric disorder with its corresponding diagnostic code is accompanied by a set of diagnostic criteria and descriptive details including associated features, prevalence, familial patterns, age-, culture-, and gender-specific features, and differential diagnosis.
http://www.psychiatryonline.com/dsmLibrary.aspx


Mihaela Brooks
Canada
Local time: 10:32
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in RomanianRomanian
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Charlesp: yes, but in some texts such academic/medical precision is not what is called for.
57 mins
  -> what the text is about?

agree  Sven Petersson
1 hr
  -> Thanks Sven

neutral  RHELLER: neither;1) neither of the answers on your answer line are acceptable;2) what you posted afterwards is medical terminology- the asker has not stated whether this is general medical terminology for the public or very precise diagnostic terminology
13 hrs
  -> Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.IV-TR.is a current terminology used in psychology/psychiatry/See..Understanding Abnormal Beh. Sue & all.6th ed.pg.470 West WashingtonUniv./If no context: why psychiatric term is unacceptable to you

neutral  Robert Donahue (X): Mihaela, I won't argue with your definitions here. They're correct. The issue at hand is finding a politically correct term. Mentally retarded is not PC in the US.
18 hrs
  -> Robert, the context is not clear re PC or psychiatric terminology. What makes a well-defined medical term PC? PC in which country?
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6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
developmentally disabled


Explanation:
This is the term that I would use.

Terminology is very important to people trying to change perceptions. Ward is a national leader of "self-advocacy," a term adopted to reflect the desire of people with a variety of disabilities to have their voices heard in decisions affecting their lives. Self-advocates don't like any labels but prefer "developmentally disabled" over "mentally retarded," which they view as pejorative.
http://www.villagelife.org/news/archives/11-4-97_disabledfig...

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Note added at 18 hrs 32 mins (2005-06-28 00:19:39 GMT)
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Bala, I don\'t present the following stats as proof positive, I merely present them to show you that the term that I\'ve proposed fits just fine. I think that you\'re reading too much into a term which is very commonly used in the US (your personal feelings on the matter notwithstanding).

Results 1 - 10 of about 237,000 for \"mentally challenged\".

Results 1 - 10 of about 605,000 for \"developmentally disabled\".

Robert Donahue (X)
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Balasubramaniam L.: My objection to the term is that "development" is a word with wide ranging connotations. Why add another meaning to it. Also "disabled" suggests the person is out of action for good. Which isn't the case. They do lead a meaningful life in their own way.
2 hrs
  -> OK, but I can't see why you would take issue with the term. It's simply a politically correct way to say "mentally retarded" and it is very commonly used. Just because "healthopedia" and "answers.com" don't use it doesn't make it any less correct. ;-)

agree  RHELLER: definitely what we would use in the U.S. at this point in time - mentally retarded is considered a no-no
7 hrs
  -> There is no one correct "politically correct" term in use. I think some people are letting competitiveness impede their judgement a bit. Thanks Rita! : )
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