International Translation Day 2017

Join ProZ.com/TV for a FREE event on September 26-27th celebrating International Translation Day! 50+ hours of content, Chat, Live Q&A & more. Join 1,000's of linguists from around the globe as ProZ.com/TV celebrates International Translation Day.

Click for Full Participation
KudoZ home » English » Medical (general)

hardening (in the following sense)

English translation: inflexibiity/toughening/solidification

Advertisement

Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
03:30 Jun 19, 2005
English to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general)
English term or phrase: hardening (in the following sense)
Coronary artery disease is also called heart disease or atherosclerosis. It is the hardening of the blood vessels by fatty deposits called plaque.

Has 'hardening' been used here in the sense of blockade? What does it imply? Thanks
chopra_2002
India
Local time: 19:59
English translation:inflexibiity/toughening/solidification
Explanation:
The word hardening is used to imply that the artery walls become more solid because of the build up of plaque (fatty deposits) on the artery wall. The use of the word 'Hardening' does not imply anything else like blockage or restricted blood flow, these are just results of the process.
So, here it is used in the strict sense of the word. other synonyms might be 'solidification/toughening/inflexibility
Selected response from:

Nigel Jones
China
Local time: 22:29
Grading comment
Thanks to all of your for your wonderful help!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

Advertisement


Summary of answers provided
4 +5inflexibiity/toughening/solidification
Nigel Jones
5 +3hardening (here) = loss of arterial flexibility due to calcium deposits on the arterial wallElizabeth Rudin
4 +2blood vessels are >>>Maria Chmelarova
4calcium deposits in the arterial wallsRefugio
3Plaque may be hard and stable, leading to narrow and hardened arteriesRHELLER
4 -2yes, it means blockage
Balasubramaniam L.


  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
Plaque may be hard and stable, leading to narrow and hardened arteries


Explanation:
In coronary artery disease, the coronary arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle are narrowed due to the accumulation of fatty deposits known as plaque. This buildup of plaque is known as artherosclerosis. Plaque may be hard and stable, leading to narrow and hardened arteries, or it may be soft and likley to break open, causing blood clots. Whether hard or soft, plaque can cause angina by narrowing the artery, severely impeding blood flow, and by causing clots that can partially or completely obstruct the artery.


    Reference: http://www.womensweb.ca/health/blood/angina.php
RHELLER
United States
Local time: 08:29
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 16
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

48 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
blood vessels are >>>


Explanation:
...are less flexible and walls are thicker, because deposits of fatty acids and minerals ...

Maria Chmelarova
Local time: 10:29
Works in field
Native speaker of: Slovak

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  luskie
5 hrs
  -> Thank you, luskie.

agree  Ann Nosova
1 day1 hr
  -> Thank you, Ann.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

58 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
calcium deposits in the arterial walls


Explanation:
It is the calcium deposits of atherosclerosis that make the arteries "stiff" or hard.

Refugio
Local time: 07:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -2
yes, it means blockage


Explanation:
Here is an extract from a little booklet on heart surgery issued by the Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre in New Delhi. My brother was recently admitted there for the same problem, and I have become something of an expert on the subject after going through the experience of witnessing his bypass surgery :)

Corornary artery disease causes a narrowing of the coronary arteries that restricts the flow of blood through these vessels. It is the result of the process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arterteris, is a build up fatty substances within the walls of the arteries. The lining of the arteries become thickened and roughened by these fatty substances. When the coronary artery becomes narrowed or blocked, the heart muscle does not receive enough blood which can lead to angina or heart muscle damage or "heart attack".

The book is by Dr Naresh Trehan, who is one of the foremost heart surgeons of the world.

If you happen to be in New Delhi, you can pick this booklet from the Escorts hospital. Its full of information about heart diseases and their treatment. It is also available in Hindi.

This makes it clear that hardening does not refer to the hardness of the substance, but to the blockage of the artery, in other words, the narrowing of the artery supplying blood to the heart muscle.

Balasubramaniam L.
India
Local time: 19:59
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in HindiHindi
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Nigel Jones: I don't agree that this passage means that hardening means blockage, quite the opposite in fact
2 hrs
  -> True, I confused the symptoms with the meaning of the word.

disagree  Angela Dickson: with Nigel - blockage can indeed follow from hardening of the arteries, but it is not the same thing.
5 hrs
  -> True, I confused the symptoms with the meaning of the word.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +5
inflexibiity/toughening/solidification


Explanation:
The word hardening is used to imply that the artery walls become more solid because of the build up of plaque (fatty deposits) on the artery wall. The use of the word 'Hardening' does not imply anything else like blockage or restricted blood flow, these are just results of the process.
So, here it is used in the strict sense of the word. other synonyms might be 'solidification/toughening/inflexibility

Nigel Jones
China
Local time: 22:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Thanks to all of your for your wonderful help!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Elizabeth Rudin
16 mins

agree  Angela Dickson
2 hrs

agree  Dr Sue Levy: or rigidity
6 hrs

agree  xxxAlfa Trans
9 hrs

agree  Ann Nosova
22 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
hardening (here) = loss of arterial flexibility due to calcium deposits on the arterial wall


Explanation:
Your sentence simply describes the condition known as atherosclerosis (sclerosis = hardness):
“Atherosclerosis (ath"er-o-skleh-RO'sis) comes from the Greek words athero (meaning gruel or paste) and **sclerosis (hardness)**. It's the name of the process in which deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and other substances build up in the inner lining of an artery. This buildup is called plaque.” http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4440

In advanced stages, atherosclerosis or the “hardening of the arteries” may lead to the narrowing or constriction of an artery (stenosis) or to arterial obstruction:

“These plaques cause a gradual, progressive narrowing of the the lumen of the artery, and thus make blood flow through the artery progressively more difficult. In addition, these plaques are subject to sudden rupture. When the plaques rupture, they trigger a clotting event within the artery that can cause acute obstruction of the lumen.” http://heartdisease.about.com/cs/coronarydisease/a/CAD1.htm

So in your context “hardening” means just that – hardening, loss of flexibility. It cannot be translated as “blockade” or “obstruction”.


Elizabeth Rudin
United Kingdom
Local time: 15:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in HungarianHungarian, Native in RomanianRomanian
PRO pts in category: 60

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Dr Sue Levy: vessel wall rigidity
6 hrs
  -> Thank you, Sue.

agree  Nick Lingris: Yes, most accurate.
6 hrs
  -> Thank you, Nick.

agree  Ann Nosova
22 hrs
  -> Thank you, Ann.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Voters for reclassification
as
PRO / non-PRO
PRO (3): Balasubramaniam L., Nigel Jones, Elizabeth Rudin


Return to KudoZ list


Changes made by editors
Jun 19, 2005 - Changes made by Elizabeth Rudin:
LevelNon-PRO » PRO


KudoZ™ translation help
The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.



See also:



Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search