brackets

English translation: artillery term

23:53 Apr 8, 2005
English to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Military / Defense / Cannon
English term or phrase: brackets
Can anyone tell what "brackets" could possibly mean in this context? (Gun here = cannon)

"Guns were not normally designated by their calibre in inches but rathre by the weight of a cannon ball which would fit the bore allowing acceptable windage. This led to interesting **brackets** developing. In British service alone in the 1860s 32 pounders ranged in actual bore size from 6.3 inches to 6.41 inches and 18 pounders from 5.17 to 5.292 inches."

TIA
Nesrin
United Kingdom
Local time: 04:03
English translation:artillery term
Explanation:
Bracketing is an artillery term used to mean putting rounds on target.

Successive bracketing technique.


(b) The effect on the target decreases as the number of rounds used in adjustment increases. An alternative technique to successive bracketing is hasty bracketing. Successive bracketing ensures that the FFE rounds impact within 50 meters of the adjusting point. If effective fires are needed faster than successive bracketing can provide, hasty bracketing should be used. A successful hasty bracketing depends on a thorough terrain analysis, which gives the observer an accurate initial target location. The observer receives a bracket on his first correction similar to that used for successive bracketing. Once the observer has this initial bracket he uses it as a yardstick to determine the subsequent correction. He then sends the FDC the correction to move the rounds to the target and to fire for effect ( Figure 7-12). Hasty bracketing improves with observer experience and judgement.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 5 mins (2005-04-08 23:59:25 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The laser can also be used to determine range, elevation, and azimuth of a target. By figuring the position, elevation, and azimuth of the aircraft itself, the direction, elevation, and reflective response time of the laser can give valuable targeting information to the pilots. By aquiring and adjusting this information, the pilot can relay that information to artillery positions to fire on the target. This elimates the need for the test firing and \"bracketing\" that artillery positions used to have to do to land artillery on a target. The old way to get artillery on a target was to give the artillery position a target in distance, azimuth and elevation as estimated by the scout pilot. Then the artillery position would have to fire rounds individually, and the scout pilot would have to call adjustments to the artillery until they could shoot on target.
http://www.helicopterpage.com/html/ahip.html

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 23 mins (2005-04-09 00:16:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

OK, I will break it down in layman\'s terms. You have the cannoneer, and you have the spotter.

The cannoneer would be given a target, dial in the rough coordinates/adjustments and fire a round.

The spotter would look for the impact of that round and then tell the gunner to make adjustments based off of where that round struck.

This is done by \"bracketing\". For example, the spotter sees that the round impacted 100 meters below and 50 meters to the right of the target.

He would tell the gunner to go up 200 meters in elevation and left 100 meters. Then he would watch for the impact of the second round.

If that round impacted nearby, he would then bracket again until the cannoneer put a round on target.

Once the round impacted properly, the cannon would begin firing on this target without need for further instruction (aka \"firing for effect\").

Obviously the information that I am providing is maybe a little skewed toawrd modern systems, but the principle behind the \"Queen of Battle\", as artillery is called, haven\'t changed much through time.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 15 hrs 36 mins (2005-04-09 15:30:05 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Dusty: One cannon, with irregular size cannon balls. Think physics here... And you just answered this yourself with your comment on photography (i.e. camera settings, or in this case gunnery settings, above and below until you get it just right). I am not trying to lord my knowledge over anyone, and I have no issue with a disagree if the answer rates it. In this instance I don\'t feel that it does.

7. a)The distance between two impacting shells, the first aimed beyond a target and the second aimed short of it, used to determine the range for artillery fire.
b)The shells fired in such a manner.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bracket
Selected response from:

Robert Donahue (X)
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +2artillery term
Robert Donahue (X)
3 +1grouping / spectrum
Michael Schubert


Discussion entries: 5





  

Answers


3 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
bracket
grouping / spectrum


Explanation:
Unless this is a technical term (which someone else can help you with, no doubt), I would understand it to mean caliber groupings or spectrums. In other words, the 32-pounder category covers what we today would designate as calibers ranging from XX to YY, etc.

Michael Schubert
United States
Local time: 20:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  sarahl (X)
1 hr

agree  Tony M: I feel sure this simple, ordinary meaning is all that is intended here. The simple fact that a cannon description by ball weight did not produce one single calibre value, but a small range of values.
7 hrs

neutral  gtreyger (X): This is a technical term
16 hrs

disagree  Andrew Patrick: This is a technical term
1 day 22 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

3 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
artillery term


Explanation:
Bracketing is an artillery term used to mean putting rounds on target.

Successive bracketing technique.


(b) The effect on the target decreases as the number of rounds used in adjustment increases. An alternative technique to successive bracketing is hasty bracketing. Successive bracketing ensures that the FFE rounds impact within 50 meters of the adjusting point. If effective fires are needed faster than successive bracketing can provide, hasty bracketing should be used. A successful hasty bracketing depends on a thorough terrain analysis, which gives the observer an accurate initial target location. The observer receives a bracket on his first correction similar to that used for successive bracketing. Once the observer has this initial bracket he uses it as a yardstick to determine the subsequent correction. He then sends the FDC the correction to move the rounds to the target and to fire for effect ( Figure 7-12). Hasty bracketing improves with observer experience and judgement.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 5 mins (2005-04-08 23:59:25 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The laser can also be used to determine range, elevation, and azimuth of a target. By figuring the position, elevation, and azimuth of the aircraft itself, the direction, elevation, and reflective response time of the laser can give valuable targeting information to the pilots. By aquiring and adjusting this information, the pilot can relay that information to artillery positions to fire on the target. This elimates the need for the test firing and \"bracketing\" that artillery positions used to have to do to land artillery on a target. The old way to get artillery on a target was to give the artillery position a target in distance, azimuth and elevation as estimated by the scout pilot. Then the artillery position would have to fire rounds individually, and the scout pilot would have to call adjustments to the artillery until they could shoot on target.
http://www.helicopterpage.com/html/ahip.html

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 23 mins (2005-04-09 00:16:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

OK, I will break it down in layman\'s terms. You have the cannoneer, and you have the spotter.

The cannoneer would be given a target, dial in the rough coordinates/adjustments and fire a round.

The spotter would look for the impact of that round and then tell the gunner to make adjustments based off of where that round struck.

This is done by \"bracketing\". For example, the spotter sees that the round impacted 100 meters below and 50 meters to the right of the target.

He would tell the gunner to go up 200 meters in elevation and left 100 meters. Then he would watch for the impact of the second round.

If that round impacted nearby, he would then bracket again until the cannoneer put a round on target.

Once the round impacted properly, the cannon would begin firing on this target without need for further instruction (aka \"firing for effect\").

Obviously the information that I am providing is maybe a little skewed toawrd modern systems, but the principle behind the \"Queen of Battle\", as artillery is called, haven\'t changed much through time.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 15 hrs 36 mins (2005-04-09 15:30:05 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Dusty: One cannon, with irregular size cannon balls. Think physics here... And you just answered this yourself with your comment on photography (i.e. camera settings, or in this case gunnery settings, above and below until you get it just right). I am not trying to lord my knowledge over anyone, and I have no issue with a disagree if the answer rates it. In this instance I don\'t feel that it does.

7. a)The distance between two impacting shells, the first aimed beyond a target and the second aimed short of it, used to determine the range for artillery fire.
b)The shells fired in such a manner.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bracket

Robert Donahue (X)
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Tony M: With all due respect Robert, to your superior military knowledge, I honestly feel that the simple explanation is the right one here // Just because I don't agree with your interpretation --- it's not a criticism ;-)
7 hrs
  -> Dusty, reread the askers sentence and then this. Interesting brackets refers to adjustments made to put a cannon shot on range, not caliber. Also, not sure how this rates a disagree? Heaven forbid you do too good a job at explaining?

agree  mac9lxx (X): Robert is right, bracketing in general terms is adjusting fire trough an oberver, in order to get close enough so the rest of the guns can fire for the effect and neutralize the target
16 hrs
  -> Thank you Muris

agree  gtreyger (X): This is right. I'll add my decade of military experience to Rob and Muris.++ Seems that Dusty doesn't like to be wrong. Three disagrees, and he is OUT of here :-)
16 hrs
  -> Thank you Gennadiy

agree  Andrew Patrick
1 day 22 hrs
  -> Thanks Andrew
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)



Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs (or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.

KudoZ™ translation help

The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.


See also:

Your current localization setting

English

Select a language

Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search