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Scala is a powerful software tool for experimentation with musical tunings, such

Arabic translation: التَوليفات الموسيقيّة، مثل سَلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ، ونظامي التَقسيم المتَساوي والتَقسيم التاريخيّ

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01:20 Dec 3, 2001
English to Arabic translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Computers (general) / computer
English term or phrase: Scala is a powerful software tool for experimentation with musical tunings, such
Scala is a powerful software tool for experimentation with musical tunings, such as just intonation scales, equal and historical temperaments,
shaimaa
Arabic translation:التَوليفات الموسيقيّة، مثل سَلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ، ونظامي التَقسيم المتَساوي والتَقسيم التاريخيّ
Explanation:
Although you posted the first part of your sentence as the phrase with which you needed help, I have a feeling that the terms that are causing some difficulty are those in the second part, namely the musical terms. If I am wrong, please forgive my guessing and correct me.

Somewhere between studying engineering in the early seventies and philosophy in the late eighties, I majored in music in the late seventies (1976-1980). From the little that I still remember, here is a summary of the concepts mentioned in your sentence:

Musical tunings: AL-TOWLEEFAT AL-MOOSEEQIYYA التوليفات الموسـيقية

Tuning an instrument (usually a string instruments) is the process of adjusting its physical attributes (such as the tension of the strings) so as to produce the correct pitches. Arabs call it TOWLEEF.

“Just intonation scales” is a relatively recent, highly technical term. First, let us look at each word separately:

“Intonation” means one of two things:

1. Vocalizing a musical phrase. Example: “When the pastor began to intone the Kyrie, the widow wept inconsolably.” For this meaning we use the term TARNEEM or TARANNUM

تَرنيم أو تَرَنُّم

2. The degree to which a singer or a string player matches the required musical pitches. A singer or player may either have a good intonation (sings or plays in tune) or a poor intonation (sings or plays out of tune). The intended meaning in your context is closer to this meaning, for which we use the term TANGHEEM تَنغيم

Scales are called SALALIM سَـلالم

So what are “just intonation scales”? To understand this phrase, we first need to look at the next two terms in your context, “equal temperament” and “historical temperament,” then come back to “just intonation scales.”

Temperament is the arithmetical scheme used for constructing musical scales or “modes”. It may be translated as NIZHAM AL TAQSEEM نظام التقسـيم because temperament can be thought of as a system for “dividing” the octave into musical intervals. But we can also call it NIZHAM AL-TAWLEEF, because it is the system used for tuning the instruments, such as pianos, and for intoning when singing.

In early music (ancient, medieval and renaissance), scales were constructed according to the Greco-Arabic harmonic theory. The philosophical tradition behind this system stretches from Pythagorus to Al-Farabi. The system worked as follows:

A scale consisted of eight pitches or seven intervals. The lowest pitch is called the tonic or the key note. The highest pitch is called the octave and is twice the frequency of the tonic. To produce such a pitch on a string instrument, the string needs to be stopped (pressed by the player’s finger on the finger board) at its midpoint, so that only one half of the string may vibrate (the shorter the string, the higher the pitch). Between the tonic and the octave, there were six other pitches, all related to the tonic in simple mathematical ratios. For instance, The ratio of fifth pitch, called the "dominant," to the tonic was 3:2, while the ratio of the fourth pitch, called the "subdominant," to the tonic was 4:3. The other intervals were similarly constructed.

This system was based on philosophical and mystical notions, and produced music that sounded heavenly in its harmonic quality. Modern science established that the acoustical reason for that pleasing sound quality was that these pitches were in harmony with the overtones, also called “harmonics” or “the harmonic series.” Harmonics are the higher pitches that are produced simultaneously by the musical instrument along with each fundamental pitch, and have frequencies that are simple multiples of the fundamental frequency. Although not heard individually, harmonics are the sound elements that give each instrument its distinctive timbre. Violin players can isolate some harmonic by adjusting the finger pressure on the string (on the finger board). The sound produced has a unique quality.

One problem with the Greco-Arabic system was that the pleasing quality of the music could be maintained only if the music kept to the same key. Modulation (changing to another key) upset these arithmetical relationships. To restore these relationships, one had to retune the instruments, which would be impracticable during a performance.

The musical developments of the baroque, especially the increasing importance of keyboard instruments (organs, harpsichords, clavichords, and, later, pianofortes, or pianos) required a more flexible system, one that gave musicians a greater range of compositional and performing possibilities, and that streamlined the manufacturing of keyboard instruments. The new approach was to make the twelve half steps of the octave all equal (a half step is the musical interval between each two adjacent keys on a keyboard instrument). Each half step would be equal to the twelfth root of 2, so that when this “irrational” figure (approximately 1.05945287) is multiplied by itself 12 times, we get the number 2 (the octave).

Untrained ears could not hear the difference between this “equal-tempered” scheme and the traditional scheme, but to keen connoisseurs, the new system produced music of a bastardized quality.

To overcome this difficulty, various compromises were proposed, the most famous of which was called “the well-tempered scale” of J.S. Bach. Arabs today call it AL-SULLAM AL-MU”ADDAL السُـلَّم المعَـدَّل

To read more about the well-tempered scale of Bach, you can look up the following page:

http://ha.kellner.bei.t-online.de/

To read more about the various scales that were debated, you can look up the following page:

http://www.webcom.com/jawknee/Mirage/UPWARD/multitempdocs.ht...

In the end, the “equal-tempered” scale triumphed over the other systems, despite its “impure” harmony.

Based on this synopsis, you can use the following terms:

Equal temperament: نظام التقسـيم أو التوليف المتَسـاوي

Historical temperament: نظام التقسـيم أو التوليف التاريخي أو القديم

A minor pint of writing style: The context that you quoted is slightly inconsistent. It uses “scales” for one item and “temperament” for the next two items in the same series. As a translator, you can either maintain the inconsistency, or you can streamline the style by using consistent terminology, as follows:

Equal-tempered scales: السلالم متساوية المسـافات

Historical scale: السلالم التاريخية أو القديمة

Now that we have surveyed scales, intonation, temperament and the harmonic series, we need to go back to the term “just intonation scales.” First here is a glossary definition:

http://www.csulb.edu/~mullen/intonation/glossary.html

“Just intonation: the exclusive use of intervals from the harmonic series in musical practice. Some use this term in specific reference to common practice harmony, which is based on the intervals found among the first five to seven harmonics. Modern “Just Intonation” (abbreviated "JI") composers commonly use intervals from beyond these first seven harmonics.”

As you can see, “just intonation scales” is a case of recidivism. It is an attempt to regain the beauty of the Pythagorean scheme, without relying on its philosophical or mystical notions, preferring to find a rationale for it in modern empirical science. The JI approach requires sophisticated hardware and software, like Scala.

According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word “just” in “just intonation” means “acoustically or harmonically pure.” I find both Raghad’s suggestion (MADHBOOT”) and Roum’s suggestion (“DAQEEQ”) acceptable. I prefer NAQIYY نَقيّ

Depending on whether you want to call it a “system” or “scales” You can translate the phrase to NIZHAM AL-TANGHEEM AL-NAQIYY or SALALIM AL-TANGHEEM AL-NAQIYY

نظام التَنغيم النَقي أو سَـلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ

Fuad
Selected response from:

Fuad Yahya
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +2التَوليفات الموسيقيّة، مثل سَلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ، ونظامي التَقسيم المتَساوي والتَقسيم التاريخيّFuad Yahya
4برنامج فعال لاختبار الأنغام الموسيقية
Safaa Roumani
4Scala adato barmajah qaweyahRaghad


  

Answers


7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Scala adato barmajah qaweyah


Explanation:
سكالا أداة برمجة قوية تستخدم لإجراء التجارب على التوليفات الموسيقية، مثل موازين التنغيم المضبوطة، والتقسيمات التاريخية والمتعادلة.
Scala adato barmajah qaweyah tustakhdamo li-ijra’ee attajareb ‘ala attawleefat almooseqeyah, mithla mawazeen attangheem almadbootah, wa attaqseemaat attareekheyah wal muta’adilah.
Or:
Scala heya adato…(add heya)
سكالا هي أداة

-a powerful software tool: adato barmajah qaweyah أداة برمجة قوية
Or: adato barmajah fa’aalah أداة برمجة فعالة
-musical tunings: attawleefat almoseqeyah التوليفات الموسيقية
-just intonation scales: mawazeen attangheem almadbootah
موازين التنغيم المضبوطة
-equal and historical temperaments: attaqseemaat attareekheyah wal muta’adilah
التقسيمات التاريخية والمتعادلة


Raghad
Local time: 15:12
PRO pts in category: 4
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7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
برنامج فعال لاختبار الأنغام الموسيقية


Explanation:
سكالا برنامج فعال لاختبار الأنغام الموسيقية مثل التقسيمات الموسيقية الدقيقة والخصائص بالغة الحساسية للأنغام المتماثلة والثانوية.


    Al Mawrid
    William Webster's Colligiate Dictionary
Safaa Roumani
United States
Local time: 08:12
Native speaker of: Arabic
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

16 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
التَوليفات الموسيقيّة، مثل سَلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ، ونظامي التَقسيم المتَساوي والتَقسيم التاريخيّ


Explanation:
Although you posted the first part of your sentence as the phrase with which you needed help, I have a feeling that the terms that are causing some difficulty are those in the second part, namely the musical terms. If I am wrong, please forgive my guessing and correct me.

Somewhere between studying engineering in the early seventies and philosophy in the late eighties, I majored in music in the late seventies (1976-1980). From the little that I still remember, here is a summary of the concepts mentioned in your sentence:

Musical tunings: AL-TOWLEEFAT AL-MOOSEEQIYYA التوليفات الموسـيقية

Tuning an instrument (usually a string instruments) is the process of adjusting its physical attributes (such as the tension of the strings) so as to produce the correct pitches. Arabs call it TOWLEEF.

“Just intonation scales” is a relatively recent, highly technical term. First, let us look at each word separately:

“Intonation” means one of two things:

1. Vocalizing a musical phrase. Example: “When the pastor began to intone the Kyrie, the widow wept inconsolably.” For this meaning we use the term TARNEEM or TARANNUM

تَرنيم أو تَرَنُّم

2. The degree to which a singer or a string player matches the required musical pitches. A singer or player may either have a good intonation (sings or plays in tune) or a poor intonation (sings or plays out of tune). The intended meaning in your context is closer to this meaning, for which we use the term TANGHEEM تَنغيم

Scales are called SALALIM سَـلالم

So what are “just intonation scales”? To understand this phrase, we first need to look at the next two terms in your context, “equal temperament” and “historical temperament,” then come back to “just intonation scales.”

Temperament is the arithmetical scheme used for constructing musical scales or “modes”. It may be translated as NIZHAM AL TAQSEEM نظام التقسـيم because temperament can be thought of as a system for “dividing” the octave into musical intervals. But we can also call it NIZHAM AL-TAWLEEF, because it is the system used for tuning the instruments, such as pianos, and for intoning when singing.

In early music (ancient, medieval and renaissance), scales were constructed according to the Greco-Arabic harmonic theory. The philosophical tradition behind this system stretches from Pythagorus to Al-Farabi. The system worked as follows:

A scale consisted of eight pitches or seven intervals. The lowest pitch is called the tonic or the key note. The highest pitch is called the octave and is twice the frequency of the tonic. To produce such a pitch on a string instrument, the string needs to be stopped (pressed by the player’s finger on the finger board) at its midpoint, so that only one half of the string may vibrate (the shorter the string, the higher the pitch). Between the tonic and the octave, there were six other pitches, all related to the tonic in simple mathematical ratios. For instance, The ratio of fifth pitch, called the "dominant," to the tonic was 3:2, while the ratio of the fourth pitch, called the "subdominant," to the tonic was 4:3. The other intervals were similarly constructed.

This system was based on philosophical and mystical notions, and produced music that sounded heavenly in its harmonic quality. Modern science established that the acoustical reason for that pleasing sound quality was that these pitches were in harmony with the overtones, also called “harmonics” or “the harmonic series.” Harmonics are the higher pitches that are produced simultaneously by the musical instrument along with each fundamental pitch, and have frequencies that are simple multiples of the fundamental frequency. Although not heard individually, harmonics are the sound elements that give each instrument its distinctive timbre. Violin players can isolate some harmonic by adjusting the finger pressure on the string (on the finger board). The sound produced has a unique quality.

One problem with the Greco-Arabic system was that the pleasing quality of the music could be maintained only if the music kept to the same key. Modulation (changing to another key) upset these arithmetical relationships. To restore these relationships, one had to retune the instruments, which would be impracticable during a performance.

The musical developments of the baroque, especially the increasing importance of keyboard instruments (organs, harpsichords, clavichords, and, later, pianofortes, or pianos) required a more flexible system, one that gave musicians a greater range of compositional and performing possibilities, and that streamlined the manufacturing of keyboard instruments. The new approach was to make the twelve half steps of the octave all equal (a half step is the musical interval between each two adjacent keys on a keyboard instrument). Each half step would be equal to the twelfth root of 2, so that when this “irrational” figure (approximately 1.05945287) is multiplied by itself 12 times, we get the number 2 (the octave).

Untrained ears could not hear the difference between this “equal-tempered” scheme and the traditional scheme, but to keen connoisseurs, the new system produced music of a bastardized quality.

To overcome this difficulty, various compromises were proposed, the most famous of which was called “the well-tempered scale” of J.S. Bach. Arabs today call it AL-SULLAM AL-MU”ADDAL السُـلَّم المعَـدَّل

To read more about the well-tempered scale of Bach, you can look up the following page:

http://ha.kellner.bei.t-online.de/

To read more about the various scales that were debated, you can look up the following page:

http://www.webcom.com/jawknee/Mirage/UPWARD/multitempdocs.ht...

In the end, the “equal-tempered” scale triumphed over the other systems, despite its “impure” harmony.

Based on this synopsis, you can use the following terms:

Equal temperament: نظام التقسـيم أو التوليف المتَسـاوي

Historical temperament: نظام التقسـيم أو التوليف التاريخي أو القديم

A minor pint of writing style: The context that you quoted is slightly inconsistent. It uses “scales” for one item and “temperament” for the next two items in the same series. As a translator, you can either maintain the inconsistency, or you can streamline the style by using consistent terminology, as follows:

Equal-tempered scales: السلالم متساوية المسـافات

Historical scale: السلالم التاريخية أو القديمة

Now that we have surveyed scales, intonation, temperament and the harmonic series, we need to go back to the term “just intonation scales.” First here is a glossary definition:

http://www.csulb.edu/~mullen/intonation/glossary.html

“Just intonation: the exclusive use of intervals from the harmonic series in musical practice. Some use this term in specific reference to common practice harmony, which is based on the intervals found among the first five to seven harmonics. Modern “Just Intonation” (abbreviated "JI") composers commonly use intervals from beyond these first seven harmonics.”

As you can see, “just intonation scales” is a case of recidivism. It is an attempt to regain the beauty of the Pythagorean scheme, without relying on its philosophical or mystical notions, preferring to find a rationale for it in modern empirical science. The JI approach requires sophisticated hardware and software, like Scala.

According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word “just” in “just intonation” means “acoustically or harmonically pure.” I find both Raghad’s suggestion (MADHBOOT”) and Roum’s suggestion (“DAQEEQ”) acceptable. I prefer NAQIYY نَقيّ

Depending on whether you want to call it a “system” or “scales” You can translate the phrase to NIZHAM AL-TANGHEEM AL-NAQIYY or SALALIM AL-TANGHEEM AL-NAQIYY

نظام التَنغيم النَقي أو سَـلالم التَنغيم النَقيّ

Fuad


    Reference: http://www.webcom.com/jawknee/Mirage/UPWARD/multitempdocs.ht...
    Reference: http://www.csulb.edu/~mullen/intonation/glossary.html
Fuad Yahya
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 64
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  AhmedAMS: Excellent. This is a connoisseur giving a lecture in music.
15 days

agree  Fabio Descalzi
1776 days
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