downstream research

Arabic translation: بحث نهائيّ

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:downstream research
Arabic translation:بحث نهائيّ
Entered by: Lamis Maalouf
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02:50 Oct 17, 2013
English to Arabic translations [PRO]
Medical - Law: Contract(s) / pharmaceutical industry
English term or phrase: downstream research
In the first phase of modern medical R&D, most products were developed by private companies, with little attention paid to understanding the causes of particular illnesses and diseases, or to understanding metabolic pathways. It required a determined effort on the part of governments to bring the insights from public-sector research to bear on the product development priorities of the private sector. The division of labour between the private sector and the public sector during these later “waves” of innovation was such that the public sector began to concentrate on upstream research that provided basic scientific knowledge on the mechanisms of disease and immune reactions. As a result of the concentration on this area, researchers identified the entry points for effective medications. Companies then focused on downstream applied research and the development of products and, by doing so, they translated basic research into medical products. The main reason for this division of labour was that, globally, the vast majority of early stage research – which is essentially not marketable or profitable as such – is funded by governments and other public-sector institutions. The public sector thus significantly influences the innovation cycle by shaping research priorities, at least with regard to basic research (WHO, 2006b; USCBO, 2006).
Muhammad Said
Egypt
بحث نهائيّ
Explanation:
في السياق المعطى، هو البحث النهائيّ الذي سيؤول إلى الإنتاج
Selected response from:

Lamis Maalouf
United States
Local time: 13:57
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +4بحث نهائيّ
Lamis Maalouf
5 +1الأبحاث الفرعية
Doaa ALnajjar
5اضعف من الاتجاه السائد في البحوث
Awad Balaish
5مراحل البحث الدنيا
Houda Nashawi
4البحث الخاص بمرحلة التسويق
Firas Allouzi


  

Answers


37 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +4
بحث نهائيّ


Explanation:
في السياق المعطى، هو البحث النهائيّ الذي سيؤول إلى الإنتاج

Lamis Maalouf
United States
Local time: 13:57
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 40
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you Lamis


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Morano El-Kholy: In contrast to: Upstream research: البحث الأولي http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=english&word=downst... / http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=english&word=upstre...
6 hrs
  -> Thanks a lot, Morano. Yes, that is also how I translated "upstream research" in the previous question. Thank you for the URLs.

agree  Hopy
11 hrs
  -> Thanks a lot

agree  Abdallah Ali
3 days 15 hrs
  -> Thanks a lot

agree  Mohamed Hosni
7 days
  -> Thank you very much
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6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
الأبحاث الفرعية


Explanation:
السياق يتحدث عن الأبحاث الأساسية التي تجريها الحكومات اهتمت بالناحية العلمية للأمراض والمناعة
ثم جاءت الأبحاث التطبيقية الفرعية من القطاع الخاص (الشركات) فاهتمت بتصنيع الدواء لتلك الأمراض مترجمة الأبحاث العلمية الأساسية إلى منتجات تجارية.
(هذا ملخص للفكرة وليس ترجمة


    Reference: http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=arabic&word=downstr...
Doaa ALnajjar
Canada
Local time: 12:57
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 12
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Omnia Rasmy Mohamed
11 days
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7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
مراحل البحث الدنيا


Explanation:
مراحل البحث الدنيا (أو الأدنى)

هي مراحل البحث العلمي التي تقوم بتطوير الأفكار العلمية الأساسية والنظرية وإيجاد تطبيق عملي لها.


    Reference: http://www.almaany.com/home.php?word=downstream
    Reference: http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%...
Houda Nashawi
United States
Local time: 14:57
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
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18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
اضعف من الاتجاه السائد في البحوث


Explanation:
00000000000000

Awad Balaish
Saudi Arabia
Local time: 21:57
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 48
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10 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
البحث الخاص بمرحلة التسويق


Explanation:
الأبحاث التسويقية

Firas Allouzi
United Kingdom
Local time: 19:57
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in category: 23
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