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Anointment / anointing

Arabic translation: various equivalent terms

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:Anointment / anointing
Arabic translation:various equivalent terms
Entered by: Fuad Yahya
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17:43 Jul 10, 2003
English to Arabic translations [PRO]
Social Sciences
English term or phrase: Anointment / anointing
I would be very grateful for the advice of the Arabic kudos section of Proz.

My question is -
is there an Arabic concept of the English "Anointment / anointing" ancient ritual or political metaphor ?
It is used as a political metaphor in the sentence:

"Some analysts viewed that move by Mr. Chrétien not only as a selection of a second-in-command, but also the anointment of his successor."

The word is used quite a lot in English language international political journalism as a metaphor for sanctioning, or marking out as rightful, a successor or newly appointed powerful politician (the metaphor coming from the sacred anointing with oil to mark the coronation of Kings in Europe, from Old Testament stories eg: Samuel & David),

and is used by writers in English (metaphorically) to describe eg: new presidents, prime ministers and other political figures in Syria, Palestine, Canada, UK, India, Pakistan, US, etc.

Is there an Arabic (Muslim or Christian) concept of the old ritual, and is it used as a political metaphor in Arabic from the ritual, or is it only a term used in English in these contexts ?

(It's different from the English 'appointing'.)

If there is an Arabic word for this sanctioning / marking out as rightful, does it come from an Arabic idea of the same ancient ritual, or is it unrelated ?

(I would be grateful for any explainations that can be offered, in English)
DGK T-I
United Kingdom
Local time: 12:23
No predominant tradition of anointing, but various other equivalent terms
Explanation:
The practice of rubbing an individual with oil as a ritual of conferring spiritual/political authority does not figure with any significant prominence in the Arab tradition, even though anointing was known in the Hebraic tradition, and is part of Christian sacramental tradition (confirmation, anointing of the sick, holy orders) and in many rituals.

The appointment or recognition of a person in a position of authority is referred to in a number of ways:

1. BAY`A or MUBAYA`A: The root of this word means "exchange" and refers to the idea of "social contract." It is used in the sense of awarding the leader personal loyalty in return for protection, and is often translated as "the act of fealty."

2. TANSEEB: Carries the sense of "installation." Today, it is mostly used in the figurative sense. In the literal sense, it is used by Shi'i Muslims in reference one particular episode, the installation of Al-Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib by the Prophet Muhammad as his successor, an event called "Al-Ghadeer," which is disputed by Sunni Mulsims, who are the majority today.

3. Ta`meem: Mostly used by Shi`i Muslims, it literally means "awarding a turban" and refers to the graduation of of a seminarian and his elevation to the postion of a community leader. This does not in itself signify the elevation to the postion of "mujtahid" (one who has magisterial authority with respect to Islamic law and who can have a recognized lay follwoing). The term is used figuratively in the sense of awarding someone a position of spiritual authority.

4. Tatweej: Literally means "coronation," and is used both literally and figuratively.

5. Juloos: Literally means "sitting," and refers to the ceremony assoicated with the elevation to a royal throne, literally or figuratively. An annual commemoration of such an event is called EED AL-JULOOS.

6. Ta`yeen: Literally means "appointing," and is not used for royalty. It is used for any appointed position in government or business.

7. Takrees: Current dictionaries suggest this term for "anointing." It comes from the word "chair" and originally refers to the elevation of a priest to the postion of bishop. It is mostly used in the sese of dedication, but can be used in the sense of consecration as well.

I am sure there are others that I cannot think of righ now.
Selected response from:

Fuad Yahya
Grading comment
Dear Colleagues,
I would like to thank each and all of you very much for your truly magnificent answers, and for your kindness in making them -together they are an education to read!
It is impossible to choose one answer as best - all deserve Kudos. Each answer adds to the whole or elaborates an aspect, very impressively.
Because I am obliged to give kudos to only one answer, I have awarded it to Fuad, but trully all the answers deserve kudos.
Thankyou again to all of you, and please accept my very best wishes.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +5No predominant tradition of anointing, but various other equivalent termsFuad Yahya
5 +1taziya
Alaa Zeineldine
5تلميع أو إبراز Talmie'a or Ebrazghassan al-Alem
4 +1Raka'a
Saleh Ayyub
3 +1Al-maseeh
muhammad turman
4ترويج/يروجALI HASAN
1Tawleya (noun)
Shazly


Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


43 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +5
No predominant tradition of anointing, but various other equivalent terms


Explanation:
The practice of rubbing an individual with oil as a ritual of conferring spiritual/political authority does not figure with any significant prominence in the Arab tradition, even though anointing was known in the Hebraic tradition, and is part of Christian sacramental tradition (confirmation, anointing of the sick, holy orders) and in many rituals.

The appointment or recognition of a person in a position of authority is referred to in a number of ways:

1. BAY`A or MUBAYA`A: The root of this word means "exchange" and refers to the idea of "social contract." It is used in the sense of awarding the leader personal loyalty in return for protection, and is often translated as "the act of fealty."

2. TANSEEB: Carries the sense of "installation." Today, it is mostly used in the figurative sense. In the literal sense, it is used by Shi'i Muslims in reference one particular episode, the installation of Al-Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib by the Prophet Muhammad as his successor, an event called "Al-Ghadeer," which is disputed by Sunni Mulsims, who are the majority today.

3. Ta`meem: Mostly used by Shi`i Muslims, it literally means "awarding a turban" and refers to the graduation of of a seminarian and his elevation to the postion of a community leader. This does not in itself signify the elevation to the postion of "mujtahid" (one who has magisterial authority with respect to Islamic law and who can have a recognized lay follwoing). The term is used figuratively in the sense of awarding someone a position of spiritual authority.

4. Tatweej: Literally means "coronation," and is used both literally and figuratively.

5. Juloos: Literally means "sitting," and refers to the ceremony assoicated with the elevation to a royal throne, literally or figuratively. An annual commemoration of such an event is called EED AL-JULOOS.

6. Ta`yeen: Literally means "appointing," and is not used for royalty. It is used for any appointed position in government or business.

7. Takrees: Current dictionaries suggest this term for "anointing." It comes from the word "chair" and originally refers to the elevation of a priest to the postion of bishop. It is mostly used in the sese of dedication, but can be used in the sense of consecration as well.

I am sure there are others that I cannot think of righ now.

Fuad Yahya
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 7167
Grading comment
Dear Colleagues,
I would like to thank each and all of you very much for your truly magnificent answers, and for your kindness in making them -together they are an education to read!
It is impossible to choose one answer as best - all deserve Kudos. Each answer adds to the whole or elaborates an aspect, very impressively.
Because I am obliged to give kudos to only one answer, I have awarded it to Fuad, but trully all the answers deserve kudos.
Thankyou again to all of you, and please accept my very best wishes.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  muhammad turman
1 hr

agree  Sami Khamou
1 hr

agree  sithanem
8 hrs

agree  radwa abdel ghany
2 days20 hrs

agree  AhmedAMS
21 days
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
تلميع أو إبراز Talmie'a or Ebraz


Explanation:
In Arabic we use the word/words shown above for anointment which literally mean shinning/highlighting, i.e., to give someone a high profile to pave the way for hime for a specific role.

ghassan al-Alem
Saudi Arabia
Local time: 14:23
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 69
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Raka'a


Explanation:
Raka’a: (رقى) in Arabic means to use Kura’an, bible or holy rituals and / or magic and in some cases olive oil is used in an attempt to protect someone from evil sprits, evil magic and envy.
Raka’a is also used as a verb to mean promoting a person or an employee from one job to another more senior job.

Therefore, (Raka’a) this is the only word that comes to my mind as close to your proposed word “Anointment / anointing” and in the ritual or metaphor context that you are looking for.

Saleh


Saleh Ayyub
New Zealand
Local time: 23:23
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 953

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  sithanem
7 hrs
  -> Thanks ..
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Al-maseeh


Explanation:
As Fuad, rightly, explained above, there is nothing that resembles this ancient - Christian ritual In the Islamic or arab tradition. However, There have been some adaptations or, Arabizations of this ritual carried out by Arab Christians, and reflected by expressions like "Al-mash bizzaiti-l-muqaddas" (Anointment with holy oil), "sirru-z-zaiti-l-muqaddas" (The secret of the holy oil),"Mashatu-l-mareed" (Anointment of the sick), and many other similar expressions. All related to the title or appellation given to Jesus In The Holy Qur'aan i.e (Al-maseeh)-(Pease Be Uopn Him).

The text below is an excellent explanation of the title given to Jesus-(Al-maseeh)- In The Holy Qur'aan:


As far as the question that why has the Qur’an used the word ‘Al-Maseeh’ for Jesus (pbuh) is concerned, the answer is: simply because, in the environment of the revelation of the Qur’an – i.e. the pre-Islamic Arabia, Jesus (pbuh) was referred to as ‘Al-Maseeh’. The word was an established and a well-known appellation (i.e. laqab) for Jesus (pbuh). The Qur’an, as is its style, under normal circumstances, has used the same words for the deliverance of its message, which were generally in vogue in the environment that it addressed. Thus, it is obvious that had Jesus (pbuh) been referred to by the Arabs by some other appellation or name, the Qur’an would then have used that other appellation or name to refer to him, unless there was something (religiously) wrong in using such appellation for Jesus (pbuh). The fact that Jesus (pbuh) was referred to by the appellation of ‘Al-Maseeh’ in the pre-Islamic Arabia is so well established that there is no need for citing any references for this purpose. However, to avoid unnecessary details and complications, the following poetic verse of a pre-Islamic Christian Arab poet – Samuel – should suffice as evidence of the above point:


وفي آخر الأيام جاء مسيحنا
فأهدى بني الدنيا سلام التكامل

And in the final days, came our ‘Maseeh’ and guided the people of the world to complete peace.

Now let us turn to the second question, i.e. why was Jesus (pbuh) given the appellation of ‘Al-Maseeh’. The word ‘Maseeh’ is generally considered to be a Ta`reeb (i.e. Arabization or adoption in the Arabic language, with some modification in the word) of the Hebrew word “maw-shee-akh”, which means 'anointed'. In the Arabic language as well, the word has the same meaning, although, some linguistic sources have also expressed the opinion that the word may imply ‘anointer’ rather than ‘anointed’. This is primarily due to the fact that in the Arabic language, words similar in sound and construction to ‘Maseeh’ (like ‘Fa`eel’, ‘Raheem’ and ‘Rajeem’ etc.) in its basic word structure can be used to denote the subject clause as well as the object clause. Thus, the word ‘Maseeh’ could imply ‘Mamsooh’ (i.e. the one who is anointed) or ‘Maaseh’ (i.e. the anointer).

Linguistic scholars of the Arabic language have proposed a number of reasons for the usage of ‘Al-Maseeh’, as an appellation for Jesus (pbuh)[1]. Some hold that the word means ‘truthful’, and was used as an appellation for Jesus (pbuh) to imply to his truthfulness. Some hold it was used as an appellation for Jesus (pbuh) because he lived his life without taking for himself a permanent abode (as the Arabic phrase ‘Masaha al-Ardh’ implies a person who travels a lot). Some think that the reason for this appellation was that Jesus (pbuh) used to correct others of their diseases merely by the touch of his hands, and thus was called ‘Al-Maseeh’, implying the one who anoints for removing disease. Some hold that the reason for this appellation was that Jesus (pbuh) was anointed with blessings. While, some hold that the appellation was given to Jesus (pbuh) because he came into this world out of his mother’s womb, naturally and divinely anointed with oil.

One may hold any of the opinions given above (or even one besides these), which in his opinion gives an acceptable reason for the particular appellation for Jesus (pbuh). In my opinion, the opinion recorded last, i.e. because of coming in this world from his mother’s womb, naturally and divinely anointed with oil seems to be the reason for this appellation. All the above noted explanation, besides the last two could only be accepted as probable explanations for the appellation, if the word ‘maw-shee-akh’ also entailed these meanings in the Hebrew language. However, it is believed that the Hebrew word ‘maw-shee-akh’ meant ‘anointed’. Thus, it seems more probable that the reason for giving Jesus (pbuh) this name had something to do with his anointment.

It is clear from a number of verses of the Old Testament that anointment was a Hebrew tradition, which generally implied one of the following three things:

Appointment of the anointed as a priest[2];

Appointment of the anointed as a ruler, or a king (it seems that this is a Hebrew tradition since the time when kings or rulers were appointed by divine authority)[3]; and

Making something clean and holy (this was, generally, 'anointing' with reference to things rather than people)[4]

Thus, anointment of a person generally meant his appointment as a prophet (priest) or a king. Keeping this Hebrew tradition in perspective, it seems that the appellation of ‘Al-Maseeh’, i.e. the anointed also implied ‘the appointed’. As I have stated earlier, I am inclined toward taking the reason for this appellation to be that, contrary to the prophets and kings preceding him, Jesus (pbuh) was naturally and divinely anointed, implying his divine appointment as God’s prophet.

Whatever one holds to be the correct reason for the referred appellation of Jesus (pbuh), the fact remains that it was, nevertheless, an established and a well-known appellation for him. The Qur’an has referred to Jesus (pbuh) by this name because this was the name, which was commonly used for Jesus (pbuh) in the pre-Islamic Arabia.


HTH
Muhammad


    Reference: http://www.understanding-islam.com/rq/q-069.htm
muhammad turman
United States
Local time: 07:23
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in pair: 436

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  AhmedAMS: Elaborate answer
21 days
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
ترويج/يروج


Explanation:
ANOINTMENT MEANS TARWEEG AND ANOINTING
MEANS YORAWEEG.TARWEEG MEANS PROMOTION
WHICH IS A MARKETING TERM CONSISTING OF
PERSONAL SELLING,ADVERTISING,SALES PROMOTION AND PUBLICITY ALL OF WHICH ARE
USED FOR PROMOTING A PRODUCT. THE PRODUCT COULD BE GOODS,SERVICES,IDEAS,
PLACES OR PERSONS. I THIS SITUATION WE HAVE A POLITICAL CANDIDATE WHO IS BEING
MARKETED FOR SPECIFIC POSITION BY HIS PREDECESSOR.

ALI HASAN
Local time: 14:23
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 87
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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5
Tawleya (noun)


Explanation:
As discussed above the concept of Anointment / anointing has no support within Arabic or Islamic culture. All above Arabic equivalent terms are well accepted but within certain political or historical frame. For this context I may prefer to use the following general Arabic term:

Yowalli, Wallaa (verb – present and past), Tawleya (noun): choose someone to do a particular job, marking out as rightful
Wali (also Al motawalli): one who governs

This word has its historical and political concept in Arabic culture and could be safely used within such context.


Shazly
Egypt
Local time: 13:23
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 3124
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16 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
taziya


Explanation:

I believe you refer to a slightly different sense of anointing than the traditional biblical meaning. The biblical meaning of course exists in Arabic as it describes a thing of the past. You question is whether there is an Arabic equivalent to the contemporary use of the term.

Rather than an official symbolic ritual that heralds the appointment or commissioning of a priest, you refer to a recommendation that does not carry a legal mandate but carries such a heavy moral weight that no one would doubt that the person being recommended will take the position he is recommended to. This is meaningful when the source of the recommendation has an extremely strong moral or executive authority, or both.

The Arabic verb زكى zakka (past), yuzakki (present/cont.) means to sanction, to recommend, or to promote (it has other meanings not relevant here). The action is تزكية tazkiyah. It is sometimes used in announcing election results when a candidate is elected because he ran unopposed; it is said that he was elected by "tazkyia" (najaha biltazkiuya), in that sense it means no contest.

The word tazkiya, also means endorsement. For example, when influential quarters support the candidacy of a person in an election, such as the ever anticipated NY Times endorsement of candidates in the US and in NY State and City, this endorsement can be accurately described in Arabic as tazkiya. The endorsement of labor unions and professional guilds of electoral candidates also is tazkiya.

Here is an excerpt that puts the word in context, apparent anomalies notwithstanding. I am sorry it is in Arabic, but you will also rely on the opinion of Arabic reading graders here, and I will try to explain it as much as possible. The passage describes the section of the Kuwaiti constitution that outlines succession to princedom.

http://www.kuna.net.kw/KuwaitAr5.htm

والكويت حسب المادة الأولى من الدستور دولة عربية مستقلة ذات سيادة تامة ، لا يجوز النزول عن سيادتها او التخلي عن اى جزء من أراضيها ، دينها الاسلام ولغتها الرسمية هى اللغة العربية . وهى إمارة وراثية فى ذرية مبارك الصباح ، يعين ولي العهد فيها بأمر أميري بناء على تزكية الأمير ومبايعة مجلس الأمة بموافقة أغلبية النواب . وفى حالة عدم التعيين على النحو السابق يزكي الأمير ثلاثة على الأقل من الذرية المذكورة فيبايع مجلس الأمة أحدهم وليا للعهد . ومعنى ذلك أن نواب البرلمان المنتخبين مباشرة من قبل المسجلين فى جداول الانتخاب لهم باع طويل فى اختيار أميرهم منذ بدأ العمل بالدستور ، وهى حالة قد تكون غير موجودة بشكل عام فى أنظمة الحكم الوراثية . ونظام الحكم فى الكويت ديمقراطي ، السيادة فيه للأمة مصدر السلطات جميعا .


Here is a translation of the relevant part:

"... It is an emirate with succession bequeathed in the progeny of Mubarak Alsabbah. The successor is appointed via princely decree based on the 'tazkiya' (recommendation) of the Prince and the endorsement of Parliament as secured by a majority vote. In such a case where appointment does not take place in the aforementioned way, the Prince yuzakki (recommends) at least three from said progeny so that Parliament selects one of them for endorsement. This means that members of parliament who are directly elected by the electorate had considerable influence in the selection of their Prince since the time the constitution came into effect"

Realize here that the Prince does not have the constitutional legal authority to appoint the successor, but effectively he also does! This is a very interesting passage to study. The presiding Prince seems to play two roles in selecting the successor: 1) He issues a "Princely Decree" when the selection process is complete, the successor is then appointed by way of the decree not by the Prince. The decree does not reflect the Prince's authority to appoint, but his endorsement of the appointment. 2) The Prince recommends one or more candidates for succession for endorsement by Parliament. We see here that Parliament has the legal authority to endorse a candidate, but Parliament also knows that only a Princely decree will effect this endorsement!

In summary, the article leads to one conclusion, when the Prince recommends a successor, the appointment of this successor is assured. The tazkya of the Prince is extremely powerful though not legally binding.

Hope this helps.

Alaa





Alaa Zeineldine
Egypt
Local time: 13:23
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 602

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  AhmedAMS: Elaborate answer
20 days
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Changes made by editors
Dec 12, 2005 - Changes made by Fuad Yahya:
Term askedAnointment / anointing (is there an Arabic concept of this ritual or metaphor?) » Anointment / anointing
FieldOther » Social Sciences


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