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Amish

Bulgarian translation: амиш

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:Amish
Bulgarian translation:амиш
Options:
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03:01 May 21, 2002
English to Bulgarian translations [Non-PRO]
Religion / religion
English term or phrase: Amish
As in "He is Amish."
амиши
Explanation:
http://www.filibe.com/christ2.html
" ....
АМИШИ, МЕНОТИ И ХАТЕРИСТИ са секти, възникнали в хода на европейската реформация. Техните членове водят прост начин на живот и живеят в общности, където делят всичко един с друг. Най-често могат да бъдат срещнати в САЩ и Канада, където техния "живот на конски двуколки" рязко контрастира с бесния темп на живота наокооло. Те са отлични фермри и щедро даряват излишните си пари на нуждаещите се. ... "

http://slovo.pu.acad.bg/dek/uchpro/english/ae_usa.htm
"Филологически факултет
Пловдивски университет "Паисий Хилендарски"
Странознание - САЩ
Учебна програма по дисциплината
Странознание / САЩ /
Извадки от учебния план
.............
8. Comment on five of the following ten American religious ‘subcultures’: the Shakers; the Amish; the Oneida Community; the Mormons; the Southern Baptists; Christian Science; Pentecostalism; Seventh Day Adventists; Jehovah’s Witnesses, and New Age ‘Orphism’ (Making America, Part Four, 1) .... "

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Note added at 2002-05-22 18:44:17 (GMT) Post-grading
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Не е точно, наистина. Квакерите са съвсем друга категория, но нямам сега време за повече обяснения. С удоволствие бих Ви разказал повече, ако ми изпратите съобщение на електронната поща. Поздрави и късмет!
Selected response from:

xxxVihar Kraste
Grading comment
Доколкото следя сайта, отговорът на Вихър както винаги е най-изчерпателен и с най-много справки. Искаше ми се да звучи по-познато на български - някои го превеждат като "квакери", но очевидно не е точно. Благодаря!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +3I think this term is not translated
Angela C.
5амиши и менонити НЕ СА синоними / Amish and Mennonites differ in matters of dress, technology, ...xxxVihar Kraste
4менонитslavist
1 +2амишиxxxVihar Kraste


  

Answers


17 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
I think this term is not translated


Explanation:
Sorry, I do not speak Bulgarian but I know that in almost any language this is true:

You should let it as it is since is a kind of proper name of a group of protestant people, I would say almost a sect.


Angela C.
Local time: 12:05
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish, Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  xxxVihar Kraste
1 hr

agree  Vladimir Shapovalov
6 hrs

agree  Ludwig Chekhovtsov
8 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5 peer agreement (net): +2
амиши


Explanation:
http://www.filibe.com/christ2.html
" ....
АМИШИ, МЕНОТИ И ХАТЕРИСТИ са секти, възникнали в хода на европейската реформация. Техните членове водят прост начин на живот и живеят в общности, където делят всичко един с друг. Най-често могат да бъдат срещнати в САЩ и Канада, където техния "живот на конски двуколки" рязко контрастира с бесния темп на живота наокооло. Те са отлични фермри и щедро даряват излишните си пари на нуждаещите се. ... "

http://slovo.pu.acad.bg/dek/uchpro/english/ae_usa.htm
"Филологически факултет
Пловдивски университет "Паисий Хилендарски"
Странознание - САЩ
Учебна програма по дисциплината
Странознание / САЩ /
Извадки от учебния план
.............
8. Comment on five of the following ten American religious ‘subcultures’: the Shakers; the Amish; the Oneida Community; the Mormons; the Southern Baptists; Christian Science; Pentecostalism; Seventh Day Adventists; Jehovah’s Witnesses, and New Age ‘Orphism’ (Making America, Part Four, 1) .... "

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-22 18:44:17 (GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Не е точно, наистина. Квакерите са съвсем друга категория, но нямам сега време за повече обяснения. С удоволствие бих Ви разказал повече, ако ми изпратите съобщение на електронната поща. Поздрави и късмет!


    Reference: http://www.filibe.com/christ2.html
    Reference: http://slovo.pu.acad.bg/dek/uchpro/english/ae_usa.htm
xxxVihar Kraste
Grading comment
Доколкото следя сайта, отговорът на Вихър както винаги е най-изчерпателен и с най-много справки. Искаше ми се да звучи по-познато на български - някои го превеждат като "квакери", но очевидно не е точно. Благодаря!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Vladimir Shapovalov
5 hrs
  -> Thank you.

agree  Ludwig Chekhovtsov
6 hrs
  -> Thanks. I appreciate your peer consent. Have a great week.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
менонит


Explanation:
Доколкото съм запозната и съм ксрещала разни секти, да, Вихър е прав донякъде, но не се казва емиши, а менонити.
Известната секта на амишите или менонитите - секта на американските менонити, последователи на известния епископ - мисля - Аман (XVII в.);
От епископа са известни и като аманити, което в България май няма гражданственост.
Може и амиши, но е известно в много тесен кръг, казаха разни познати от Семинарията.

slavist
Local time: 19:05

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  xxxVihar Kraste: Amish & Mennonites differ in matters of dress, technology, language, form of worship, and interpretation of the Bible. Както може да се види на http://www.800padutch.com/amish.shtml. Това за епископ Аман е вярно, ама не съвсем. Амишите са наречени на нeго
12 hrs
  -> Сигурно е така, споделих източника си, не съм ровила в мрежата, защото други го бяха направили.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 day49 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
амиши и менонити НЕ СА синоними / Amish and Mennonites differ in matters of dress, technology, ...


Explanation:
Amish and Mennonites differ in matters of dress, technology, language, form of worship, and interpretation of the Bible.
Както можете да се убедите, ако прочетете долните редове:

(http://www.800padutch.com/amish.shtml)
"Here are some questions and answers about the Amish, the Mennonites, the Brethren, and the other "Plain People" of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country.
....................
What is the history of the Amish?
The Amish have their roots in the Mennonite community. Both were part of the early Anabaptist movement in Europe, which took place at the time of the Reformation. The Anabaptists believed that only adults who had confessed their faith should be baptized, and that they should remain separate from the larger society. Many early Anabaptists were put to death as heretics by both Catholics and Protestants, and many others fled to the mountains of Switzerland and southern Germany. Here began the Amish tradition of farming and holding their worship services in homes rather than churches.
In 1536, a young Catholic priest from Holland named Menno Simons joined the Anabaptist movement. His writings and leadership united many of the Anabaptist groups, who were nicknamed "Mennonites." In 1693, a Swiss bishop named Jacob Amman broke from the Mennonite church. His followers were called the "Amish." Although the two groups have split several times, the Amish and Mennonite churches still share the same beliefs concerning baptism, non-resistance, and basic Bible doctrines. They differ in matters of dress, technology, language, form of worship, and interpretation of the Bible.
The Amish and Mennonites both settled in Pennsylvania as part of William Penn's "holy experiment" of religious tolerance. The first sizable group of Amish arrived in Lancaster County in the 1720's or 1730's."

Освен горните извадки, страницата съдържа още много редове и представлява доста полезно и поучително четиво за ерудираните богослови от Богословския факултет и/или Семинарията! (Моите най-искрени почитания и смирено уважение към висшия ни клир, но аз лично бях смутен, за да не кажа потресен от теологичната безпросветеност и скандална нетолерантност на доста знатни сановници от Светия синод преди известно време. А и лично съм виждал менонитите и амишите из граничните полета между Пенсилвания и Мериленд, където прекарах известно време преди време.)

Ако имате още време и желание, на адрес:
(http://littlehouses.net/hmamshpc.htm)
можете да се убедите, че дори каручките на амишите и менонитите са различни, т.е. има Amish Buggy и Mennonite Buggy, които са подобни, но не са еднакви. Изобщо на този сайт Вашите познати от Семинарията и/или Духовната академия (Богословския факултет) могат да видят интересни картинки от бита, традициите, обичаите, домовете, стопанската култура и предмети от бита на амишите.

Още примери:
(http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id...
" ... Doulas and midwives attend many births for Mennonite, Amish and Jahovah Witness believers. It sounds like you need someone experienced first in VBACs then homebirth would be great. ... "

(http://www.virtualtourist.com/m/.80208/23923/?s=F)
" ... Off the Beaten Path: Green Dragon Farmer`s Market (Fridays only) Outside of Ephrata, this is a fabulous spot to check out Amish and Mennonites in a natural environment. Drive up 272 North and watch for the huge green dragon sign. Go for supper. They have great delis and ... "

(http://www.keyaccess.com/keycode/steiners/)
"Family owned and operated since February, 2000; Steiner's Amish Furniture is new to Arizona, but Amish craftsmen have been making furniture for hundreds of years. We represent Amish craftsmen in Wayne and Homes Counties, Ohio. Owners Mike and Brent Steiner are brothers from Apple Creek, Ohio. They were raised on a farm and grew up among the Amish in this small, mosty Amish and Mennonite community."

Доколкото научаваме, Българската православна църква (БПЦ) в лицето на висшия клир е против посещението на папата. Може би според клира папата е опасен сектант или най-малкото амиш/менонит?! Май много има да четат и пишат духовниците ни, за да компенсират пагубната липса на доверие и уважение към църквата. И нека не плашат с папата. Страшно няма. Даже менонитите не са страшни.

И както многократно се е доказало, когато фактите говорят, даже богословите и преводачите би трябвало да ... се съгласят.

Успехи и хубави празници.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-22 04:09:56 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Amish (Encyclopaedia Britannica Article):

also called Amish Mennonite, member of a conservative Christian group in North America, primarily members of the Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. They originated in Europe as followers of Jakob Ammann, a 17th-century Mennonite elder whose teachings caused controversy and schism during the years 1693–97 among the Mennonites in Switzerland, Alsace, and south Germany. Ammann insisted that any Mennonite who had been excommunicated should be shunned or avoided by all other Mennonites and that anyone who told a falsehood should be excommunicated. He introduced washing of feet into the worship service and taught that church members should dress in a uniform manner, that beards should not be trimmed, and that it was wrong to attend services in a state church. Although Ammann subsequently sought reconciliation with the Mennonites who disagreed with him, he continued to insist that all who had been excommunicated should be avoided, and reconciliation attempts failed. Amish settlements and congregations sprang up in Switzerland, Alsace, Germany, Russia, and Holland, but migration to North America in the 19th and 20th centuries and assimilation with Mennonite groups gradually eliminated the Amish in Europe.

The Amish began migrating to North America early in the 18th century and first settled in eastern Pennsylvania, where a large settlement is still found. Schisms and disruptions occurred after 1850 because of tensions between the “old order,” or traditional Amish, and those who wished to adopt “new order” or progressive methods and organizations. During the next 50 years about two-thirds of the Amish either formed separate, small churches of their own or joined either the Mennonite Church or the General Conference Mennonite Church. (See Mennonite.)

Those who continued the characteristic lifestyle of the Amish are primarily members of the Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. In the late 20th century there were about 50 Old Order Amish settlements in the United States and Canada; the largest were located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, and Kansas. Their settlements are divided into church districts that are autonomous congregations composed of about 75 baptized members. If the district becomes much larger it is again divided because the members meet in each other\'s homes. There are no church buildings. Each district has a bishop, two to four preachers, and an elder; but there are no general conferences, mission groups, or cooperative agencies. The Amish differ little from the Mennonites in formal doctrine. Holy Communion is celebrated twice each year, and washing of feet is practiced by both groups. Adults are baptized when they are admitted to formal membership in the church at about age 17 to 20. Services are conducted in Palatine German with a mixture of English, commonly known as Pennsylvania Dutch.

The Amish are best known for their severely plain clothing and their nonconformed way of life. The men wear broadbrimmed black hats, beards—but not moustaches—and homemade plain clothes fastened with hooks and eyes instead of buttons. The women wear bonnets, long full dresses with capes over the shoulders, shawls, and black shoes and stockings. No jewelry of any kind is worn. This cultural nonconformity is thought by the Amish to be obedience to biblical strictures, but it is primarily the continuance of 17th-century European rural costume. The Amish also shun telephones and electric lights and drive horses and buggies rather than automobiles. They are generally considered excellent farmers, but they often refuse to use modern farm machinery. Children attend public elementary schools and are not sent to high schools. This practice has caused the Amish some difficulty because of compulsory school attendance laws, and some Amish parents have gone to jail rather than allow their children to go to high school.

To cite this page:
\"Amish\" Encyclopaedia Britannica
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=7274>
[Accessed May 22, 2002].

Mennonite (Encyclopaedia Britannica Article):

member of a Protestant church rising out of the Anabaptists, a radical reform movement of the 16th century Reformation, and named for Menno Simonsz. (q.v.), a Dutch priest who consolidated and institutionalized the work initiated by the moderate Anabaptist leaders. Mennonites are located in many countries of the world, with heaviest concentrations in the United States and Canada.

Reformation origins.
Among the various Anabaptist groups, the Mennonites trace their origin particularly to the so-called Swiss Brethren, who formed their first congregation on January 21, 1525, in the face of imminent persecution for their nonconformity to the demands of the state church led by the Reformation theologian Huldrych Zwingli. Though these demands centred on infant Baptism, which Anabaptist leaders Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, and others questioned on the basis of biblical studies, the real issue was the nature of the church. Christ, according to their view, is Lord of the church. Only those who submit to that lordship can be true members of his body. Furthermore, the body of Christ receives its guidance from Christ himself through the Scriptures and the Holy Spirit, not from or through the civil magistracy. Persecution soon scattered the Swiss Brethren across Europe; their doctrinal views found quick response among many people, and for a time the movement grew.

Though Mennonites are the direct descendents of the Anabaptists of the 16th century, the two movements are not identical. Menno Simons, a Dutch priest who joined the Anabaptist movement in 1536, gathered the scattered Anabaptists of northern Europe into vital congregations that were soon called by his name. These congregations led by Menno Simons were similar to another Anabaptist-related group organized in Strasbourg under Melchior Hofmann in 1530. Initially, Menno Simons was not directly influenced by the Swiss Brethren; but with the death of the first Swiss and south German Anabaptist leaders soon after the defeat of the peasant forces led by some radical revolutionary Anabaptists—such as Thomas Mьntzer (c. 1490–1525)—in the Peasants\' War (1525), Simons began to consolidate and institutionalize the work that the moderate Anabaptist leaders of Europe had begun. He represents a second generation of leaders in which the emerging tradition determined basic faith and doctrine.

Another Anabaptist movement flourished in central Germany under the leadership of Hans Hut (died 1527), Hans Denk (c. 1500–27), and especially Pilgram Marpeck (c. 1492–1556), a major early lay theologian. Still another movement came to be known as the Hutterian Brethren because of the coordinating leadership of Jakob Hutter (died 1536). The Hutterites were soon known for their communal living and for an intense missionary zeal that continued into the 17th century, after all other Anabaptist groups had found relative physical security by withdrawing geographically and socially from the mainstream of European life.


Developments from the 17th century to the 19th.
Mennonites found political freedom first in The Netherlands, after their last martyr died there in 1574. Before that date, however, many had emigrated from there to the Vistula River area in what is now northern Poland, where their communities became large and flourishing. By 1700 there were 160,000 baptized members in the Mennonite churches of The Netherlands. Because many of the professions were legally closed to them, they turned to business and in the process became wealthy and urbanized. In matters of faith, they followed the Enlightenment, a 17th- and 18th-century intellectual movement that placed its hope for human betterment on the use of right reason. They became well known as artists, writers, and patrons of social programs; but membership declined to about 15,300 in 1837.

Persecutions that continued in Switzerland into the 18th century drove many Mennonites to southern Germany, Alsace, The Netherlands, and the United States. A major schism occurred (1693–97) when the Swiss Mennonite bishop left the Mennonites to form the Amish Church in an attempt to preserve biblical discipline among the membership. From the 17th to the 20th centuries, most Mennonites in Switzerland, southern Germany, and Alsace lived in semiclosed rural communities with a simple agrarian economy. Religiously, they were influenced by Pietism, a Lutheran-based movement that emphasized personal religious experience and reform.

In 1788 the first of a long stream of Mennonites left the Vistula Delta of northern Poland (Prussia) to settle in the Ukraine, where they acquired land and escaped military conscription. By 1835 about 1,600 families had settled in 72 villages with landholdings amounting to about 500,000 acres. In 1860 a small group within the Mennonite community in Russia underwent a religious awakening and demanded stricter discipline for church members. They founded the Mennonite Brethren Church, some of whose members joined an exodus of Mennonites from Russia in the 1870s that was provoked by the loss of their exemption from military service. Many of these immigrants settled in the Middle West of the United States and in Manitoba, Can.

By World War I the Mennonite settlements in Russia included more than 120,000 members living in autonomous communities where religious, educational, social, economic, and even political affairs were under their own control. All Mennonite communities in Russia were either destroyed during World War II or dissolved by the Soviets soon after 1945. Mennonites today live scattered among the Russian population.

Beginning in 1663, Mennonites emigrated to North America to preserve the faith of their fathers, to seek economic opportunity and adventure, and especially to escape European militarism. Until the late 19th century, most Mennonites in North America lived in rural communities and engaged successfully in farming. They retained their German language, partly as a religious symbol and partly as insulation against their environment. Their main concern was to be left alone to worship God according to their conscience and tradition. In 1775 they addressed a statement to the Pennsylvania Assembly that read:

It is our principle to feed the hungry and give the thirsty drink; we have dedicated ourselves to serve all men in everything that can be helpful to the preservation of men\'s lives, but we find no freedom in giving, or doing, or assisting in anything by which men\'s lives are destroyed or hurt.

In 1783 Mennonites in Lancaster County were accused of treason for feeding destitute British soldiers. During the U.S. Civil War, rather than fight, some hired substitutes or paid an exemption fee of $300 in the North and $500 in the South. Those who fought in the armed forces were usually excommunicated for doing so.

After 1850 the transition from the German language to English, the adoption of such institutions and practices as Sunday schools and evangelistic services, together with problems associated with the acculturation process, led to a number of divisions among the Mennonites; some branches were also imported from Europe. The largest single body is the (Old) Mennonite Church; following are the General Conference Mennonite Church, the Mennonite Brethren, and the Old Order Amish. Most extreme are the Hutterian Brethren, who still live communally and practice community of goods; this relatively small group is concentrated in the upper Great Plains region of North America.

Beliefs and practices.
Anabaptist and Mennonite thought has been characterized by a separation between religion and the world. Under the impact of severe persecution in the 16th century, Anabaptism was driven to a strategy of withdrawal from society in its attempt to survive, a strategy that became central in Mennonite theology. Consequently, most Mennonites have possessed a strong cultural cohesion that they maintained externally by withdrawal and internally by rigorous group discipline. This isolation encouraged the sectarian virtues of frugality, hard work, piety, and mutual helpfulness but frequently also led to schism. By the mid-20th century, however, Mennonites were deeply involved in the social, educational, and economic world around them, an involvement that led to revolutionary changes in their life and thought. It also led to a new search for identity as a distinct group in the modern world, through a study of their denominational history, sociological analysis, and theological interaction with other groups.

Mennonites are trinitarian (believing in the doctrine of the Trinity—i.e., Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), affirm the Scriptures (especially the New Testament and the teachings of Jesus) as their final authority for faith and life, and appeal to the pattern of the early church as their congregational model. They stress the importance of Baptism on confession of faith and a symbolic understanding of the Lord\'s Supper. Some practice foot washing, a practice based on an act of Jesus with his disciples. The doctrines of nonconformity to the world, nonswearing of oaths, nonresistance in lieu of military service, and church discipline are generally affirmed but not practiced universally.

Mennonite worship services are sermon-centred. A simple, almost austere, liturgy surrounds the Gospel proclamation. In the late 20th century, however, there were many signs of experiment in worship similar to those found in other denominations.

Most Mennonite congregations are joined together into numerous conferences, seven of which are in North America. The Amish, Hutterian Brethren, and some conservative Mennonites do not form conferences. Since 1925 there has been a Mennonite World Conference that meets every five years for fellowship, study, and inspiration but does not make decisions binding on its member bodies.

The desire to express positively the ethic of love and nonresistance has historically given Mennonites a deep social concern. An emergency relief committee for national and international aid, founded by the Dutch Mennonites in 1725, is still active. In 1920 North American Mennonites founded the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) for the same purpose, initially to relieve famine in Russia. Mennonite migrations continued during the 20th century, primarily from Russia to North and South America—to Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Mexico, and British Honduras. Mennonite migrants and missionaries from North America and Europe planted numerous churches in Latin America, Africa, Oceania, and India and other parts of Asia.

In the 20th century, the Mennonites of North America gave new emphasis to higher education, especially by supporting their own colleges and seminaries, while continuing to maintain secondary and Bible schools. New interest in the faith of early Anabaptists was fostered by the scholarly work of both Mennonite and non-Mennonite historians. This activity not only offered new insights for the renewing of church life but accented the disparity between the 16th-century Anabaptist ideals and present Mennonite beliefs and practices. A rediscovery of their history also gave new meaning to urban social relationships; witness, service, discipleship, and evangelism became household words and shaped Mennonite identity. Instead of withdrawal, they found in witness and service a new way of relating to the world. (See also Amish; Hutterite).

Additional reading
The Mennonite Encyclopedia, 4 vol. (1955–59), is the standard reference work in English.

To cite this page:
\"Mennonite\" Encyclopaedia Britannica
<http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=53335>
[Accessed May 22, 2002].


    Reference: http://www.800padutch.com/amish.shtml
    Reference: http://www.virtualtourist.com/m/.80208/23923/?s=F
xxxVihar Kraste
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