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snapper etc

Bulgarian translation: костенурка и т.н.

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:snapper etc
Bulgarian translation:костенурка и т.н.
Entered by: Andrei Vrabtchev
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02:39 May 20, 2001
English to Bulgarian translations [Non-PRO]
Science
English term or phrase: snapper etc
Razni vodni zivotinki:
snapper -
spiny lobster -
damsel fish -
goat fish -
blue fish -
kelp -
urchin -
slavist
вж. по-долу
Explanation:
snapper - вж.
http://www.snap-shot.com/frame/ocean.htm

http://www.snap-shot.com/pages/fish/turtles.html

spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) - вид омар (Homarus); вж.

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:b5728132c2b3fb6b:www.ep...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:b70a4592447a5d26:soma.n...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:2af8fb352d8d04e3:www.pb...

This is G o o g l e's cache of http://www.epa.gov/gumpo/seast11.html.
G o o g l e's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web.
The page may have changed since that time. Click here for the current page without highlighting.


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These search terms have been highlighted: spiny lobster



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Sea-Stats No. 11 - Spiny Lobster
A summary of information and statistics on the marine organisms common in Florida waters

Table of Contents
Classification
Description
Distribution and Habitat
Life History
Migration
Feeding
Parasites and Diseases
Fishing Gear and Methods/Regulations
Farming Potential
Handling and Processing/Nutritional Value
Economic Importance/Historical Notes
Similar Species in Florida Waters
Glossary
References

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Florida Department of Natural Resources Florida Marine Research Institute 100 Eighth Avenue, Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spiny Lobster
V. N. Stewart
Classification

The Florida spiny lobster, a favored seafood, is classified in the Phylum Arthropoda (animals with jointed legs), Class Crustacea (having a "crust" or hard outer shell) and Order Decapoda (having ten legs). Shrimp also fit this classification, but they are considered to be "swimming" decapod crustaceans of the Suborder Natantia (meaning swimming). Lobsters are in the Suborder Reptantia: bottom-dwelling, "crawling" animals. All arthropods are invertebrate animals, without backbones.

Spiny lobsters are also known as crawfish; sometimes they are also called langosta and crayfish. The scientific name is Panulirus argus. The generic name, Panulirus, is an anagram of Palinurus, another spiny lobster and the first named. The species name, argus, refers to the large "eyespots" on the carapace and is derived from Greek mythology: Argus was a giant with a hundred eyes.

Description

The animal is called "spiny" because of the strong, forward- curving spines projecting from the hard shell covering its body. The spines can present a hazard to anyone handling the live animal without protecting the hands with gloves. Hard spines are also located above the eye orbits for protection. There are no claws. Two whip-like antennae are longer than the body.

Being a decapod crustacean, the animal has five pairs of walking legs. On the seafloor, the sharp-pointed legs enable the animal to move about freely. A lobster may also swim rapidly backward by flapping its powerful tail. The fifth pair of legs of the female bears a claw or spur-like growth which is used to clean the eggs she may carry and to scratch the sperm packet.

The body has two main parts, the cephalothorax ("head" section) and abdomen ("tail" section). The cephalothorax comprises the head, a cape-like carapace or shell, the mouth parts and the ten walking legs. The abdomen (tail) is narrower than the forward section; the shell covering the tail is divided into six ring- like segments. The hard shell covering each segment ends in two unequal teeth on each side of the body. Four pairs of small leaf-like structures, called swimmerets, are found under the tail. Female spiny lobsters carry their eggs in the swimmerets. The tail ends in a flat, flexible fan, consisting of a broad center section (the telson) and two lobes on each side (the uropods).

To distinguish between the sexes, examine the underside of the cephalothorax. In the male, sperm duct openings are found at the base of the fifth pair of walking legs, those nearest the tail section. The sperm ducts become greatly enlarged during the breeding season. Male swimmerets are single and paddle-like. In females, eggs are discharged through a small opening at the base of the third (central) pair of legs. Female swimmerets are bilobed, resembling small pincers and, as noted, carry the eggs. The fifth pair of legs of the female is adapted for tending the eggs.

Spiny lobsters vary in color. They may range from very light, almost white, to very dark, almost black or red-orange. In general, spiny lobsters from inshore, shallower waters are lighter in color than those from deeper reefs.

Perhaps the most easily recognized identifying characters are the large yellow spots bordered by a darker color on each side of the second and sixth segments of the tail. Smaller spots are scattered over other segments in rather regular bands.

Distribution and Habitat

Spiny lobsters are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. They occur in Bermuda, the West Indies and south Florida. They have been reported as far north as Beaufort, North Carolina and south to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They support a major fishery in south Florida waters, especially in the Keys.

Adult spiny lobsters are gregarious, favoring rocky outcrops, sponges and patch reefs where they hide in the daytime and emerge to hunt for food at night.

Juvenile lobsters settle in nearshore shallow waters, hiding in seaweeds. As they mature, they move out to seaward reefs.

Life History

Females carry the fertilized eggs for about three weeks before they hatch, producing phyllosome larvae - tiny, flat, spider-like creatures that are transparent except for pigments in the eyes. Phyllosomes drift in ocean currents for up to nine months and pass through 11 stages of development before changing into a transparent, swimming, lobster-like form called a puerulus. Transparency helps protect phyllosomes and the puerulus from predators. During the three to four week interval of the puerulus stage, the animal does not feed. The puerulus swims directionally until it reaches suitable nearshore habitat where it settles to the bottom, molts and continues its development as a juvenile spiny lobster. Juvenile pigmentation serves to camouflage small lobsters in the algae where they live. The body form resembles that of adults. Juveniles live on the sea floor among rocks, algae and seagrass beds in shallow waters. With increasing size, they move to deeper waters and as they mature they migrate to seaward reefs. Reproductive maturity is attained at about three (plus) years of age, including the larval period.

To grow, spiny lobsters must shed their hard outer skeleton by molting, just as other crustaceans do. The joint between the head and tail section splits and the animal backs out of the old carapace, or "shell," emerging soft and vulnerable. The soft animal quickly absorbs water, expands and the largernew carapace hardens. Young lobsters molt often, older ones less frequently, perhaps only once a year.

When lobsters mate, principally from March through July, the male deposits a sperm mass, called a spermatophore, or tarspot, on the female. During spawning, the female discharges eggs which are fertilized as they pass over the spermatophore. She may release from 250,000 to a million eggs each time she spawns. The eggs are attached to her underside; an egg-bearing female is referred to as "berried." Eggs hatch after three to four weeks and the complex life cycle begins anew with the microscopic phyllosome larvae.

Migration

Much of the life of a spiny lobster involves travel. While drifting in the sea for nine months, the phyllosome may travel great distances. As a puerulus, it swims shoreward by night and lives on the sea-floor by day. In the juvenile stage it lives in shallow nearshore waters and as it matures it moves to seaward reefs.

Adult lobsters, on occasion, participate in mass migrations. They queue up in nearly military lines and march in shallow or deeper water. The leader sets the course and speed; new leaders take their place periodically, as though distributing the work of leadership. Each animal uses its antennae to maintain contact with the one ahead of it in the line. It is not known where such lines go or even why they occur.

Studies by the Florida Marine Research Institute have observed movement of individual animals up and down an offshore reef tract, up to distances of 50 or 60 miles at rates up to two miles per day.

Feeding

The diet of spiny lobsters varies with their life stages. Larvae are carnivores that feed on other tiny animals adrift in the sea. Pueruli are not known to feed. Juvenile and adult animals are opportunistic, feeding to some extent on nearly any available plant or animal. They seem to prefer mollusks and small crustaceans, however.

Parasites and Diseases

There is little information available regarding the incidence of parasites and diseases in spiny lobster populations. However, injuries to the animals due to recreational and commercial harvesting practices result in the redirection of growth energy to energy for regeneration and repair of damaged appendages and wounds. Reduced growth rates have been documented to be as great as 40% in areas where there is a high rate of injury, such as in the juvenile nursery grounds.

Using shorts (lobsters under minimum legal size) as live attractants in traps puts great stress on the animals, and though not a "disease" in the usual sense, causes heavy mortality of young animals. The Florida Keys fishery uses at least a million shorts as attractants annually, resulting in a mortality rate of more than 25% of the lobsters transported as bait.

Fishing Gear and Methods/Regulations

In view of the many impacts on spiny lobsters in Florida waters, new regulations became effective in 1988, and several fishery practices will be phased out, effective in 1990.


Recreational Fishery

In the regular season, beginning 6 August through 31 March each year, six lobsters per person or 24 per boat, whichever is greater, are allowed. There is no off-water possession limit. The two-day special recreational season occurs on the last full weekend prior to 1 August each year.


Commercial Fishery

The pre-season trap soaking period begins on 1 August. The harvest season begins 6 August and extends through 31 March.

As of 1 August 1990, use of undersized (short) lobsters as attractants will be prohibited. Until 1 April 1990, no more than 50 undersized lobsters per boat or one per trap on board a boat, whichever is greater, will be allowed in state waters. Other restrictions apply, such as requirements to keep the animals alive in a shaded, continuously circulating live-well with pumping capability to totally replace the water every eight minutes and large enough to provide at least 3/4 gallons of water per lobster. The lobsters must be returned alive to the water daily.

After 1 April 1990, plastic traps will not be permitted.

The rules listed below are now in effect. Commercial divers must display a "diver down" flag and mark the boat with a permanent identification number on a placard no smaller than 16 X 20 inches. Divers are prohibited from exceeding the daily recreational bag limit while fishing at night. All divers harvesting spiny lobsters must possess, while in the water, a lobster carapace-measuring device and each measurement shall occur in the water.

Any directed net fishery, other than hand-held nets, is prohibited.

Also included in the rules is a ban on the harvest or possession of egg-bearing slipper lobsters. Alhough slipper lobsters are not discussed in this publication, fishermen should be aware of the new regulations protecting slipper lobsters.

A minimum three-inch carapace length continues to be the legal size for spiny lobsters (P. argus). Animals must remain in a whole condition at all times while being transported on or below state waters. No egg-bearing females may be taken. The use of grains, spears, grabs, hooks or similar devices is prohibited.

Molesting, taking or trapping spiny lobster within the Biscayne Bay-Card Sound Crawfish Sanctuary (in Dade and Monroe counties) is prohibited. The sanctuary is a major nursery ground for juvenile spiny lobsters. The taking of lobsters is also prohibited in Everglades and Fort Jefferson National Parks and trapping is prohibited in the Core Area at Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary.

In the 21-year period from 1963 to 1984, the annual catch per trap decreased from 45 pounds to 8 pounds. Competition in this crowded, over-capitalized fishery has led to practices which severely threaten its survival. The regulations now in place are a step toward protecting egg-bearing females and undersized animals. Because regulations are subject to change for more effective management, it is wise to check with the Florida Marine Patrol periodically for updated information on the laws.

Farming Potential

Considering the complex life history of spiny lobsters, such as the nine months for drifting phyllosomes, the habitat demands of the puerulus and juvenile stages, and the needs of the adult animals, the potential for "farming" lobster is dim at this time. No one has, to date, reared spiny lobster from an egg to a mature adult.

Handling and Processing/Nutritional Value

Spiny lobsters are generally available in the marketplace as cooked, then frozen, whole lobsters or tails. Allow about one pound of whole lobster per person, which yields approximately 1/3 pound of cooked lobster meat.

The succulent meat of lobster tails accounts for their popularity. As with other crustaceans, such as crabs and shrimp, lobster rates high as a good nutritional choice. Approximately 18% is protein, with a fat content of 1.4%. There are 98 calories per 100 grams (about 3-1/2 ounces) and 296 milligrams of sodium.

Economic Importance/Historical Notes


Spiny lobsters have long been an important commercial south Florida fishery, particularly in the Keys. They have also supported an economically significant recreational fishery. The tasty seafood attracts sports divers to the Keys in great numbers. Motel bookings are often made a year in advance. The combined efforts of sport and commercial fishing have placed a serious stress on the stock. Though fishery effort has continued to increase, the annual catch during the last ten years has remained fairly stable. Recent studies, however, suggest that the present commercial landings could be accomplished with one- third to one-fifth of the effort now expended.

Since 1976, the five-year averages of landings reflects a continuing decline. Widespread use of shorts (under legal size) began in 1976, allowing fishermen to possess 200 on board each vessel for bait. With 675,000 traps in the water in 1984, this procedure alone caused the mortality of a significant portion of the potential harvest.

Following the closure of the Bahamian Banks to American fishermen in 1975, greater effort was directed to the Keys and south Florida. Cuban immigrants also entered the fishery. It is estimated that recreational fishermen take at least 10% of the total catch.


Spiny Lobster Landings, 1976-1988

Year Pounds Average_Per_Year

1976 5,345,522
1977 6,344,116
1978 5,601,903
1979 7,779,399
1980 6,694,842
6,353,156 (5-yr average)
1981 5,894,005
1982 6,496,804
1983 4,316,652
1984 6,166,652
1985 4,904,690
5,555,761 (5-yr average)
1986 5,029,040
1987 6,091,914
1988** 5,675,988**
5,598,981 (3-yr average)

Average landings, pounds per year,
1976-1988: 5,872,425 (13-yr average)

** Preliminary data for 1988.

To improve this stressed fishery and protect future stocks, scientists have recommended measures to better manage the fishery. Some of the suggestions are being initiated (see Regulations) but there must be constant monitoring of the stock to determine effectiveness. More stringent measures may be required. International management of spiny lobster fisheries is recommended to assure the well-being of the Caribbean/American stocks.

Similar Species in Florida Waters



Panulirus guttatus, Spotted Crawfish

This species is very similar to P. argus in body shape but is smaller. Its ground-color is darker (dark green or purplish blue) and covered with white or orange spots over the entire body, tail, legs and antennae. It has a range similar to P. argus, but is less common inshore, equally common on offshore reefs. It is mainly found in reef environments in all but its larval stages and seldom enters traps.


Panulirus laevicauda, Smooth-tailed Crawfish

The smooth-tailed crawfish has a bluish-green to purplish cast and small white spots are found mainly on the sides of the tail, not on the upper surface. The legs have longitudinal stripes. It is found in small numbers in waters of southeast Florida.

Several species of slipper (scyllarid) lobsters are also found in Florida waters, such as the sand and shovel-nosed lobsters. They all lack the long antennae of the spiny lobsters. The antennae are shaped like flat paddles, and are believed to be used for passive defense.

Glossary

carapace:
hard covering or "shell;" the outer covering of shrimps, crabs and lobster.
bilobed:
having two lobes or parts.
larva, larvae (pl.):
immature form, different in appearance than the adult form.
metamorphosis:
change in form and habits of an organism, usually quite dramatic.
shorts:
lobsters of sublegal size, less than three-inch carapace length.
References

Anonymous. 1987. Question: Can the common Florida spiny lobster
be farmed commercially? Sea Frontiers 33(6):459-460.

Anonymous. 1986. Where do baby Florida lobsters live? Sea
Frontiers 32(6):465.

Chandler-Middleton, K. 1985. In search of spiny lobster larvae.
Sea Frontiers 31(2):86-93.

Heatwole, D. W., J. H. Hunt and F. S. Kennedy. 1988. Catch
efficienceis of live lobster decoys and other attractants in
the Florida spiny lobster fishery. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research
Publ. 44. 15 pp.

Herrnkind, W. F. 1975. Strange march of the spiny lobster.
National Geographic 147(6):818-831.

Hunt, J. H. and W. G. Lyons. 1986. Factors affecting growth and
maturation of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in the
Florida Keys. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
43(11):2243-2247.

Hunt, J. H., W. G. Lyons and F. S. Kennedy, Jr. 1986. Effects of
exposure and confinement on spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus,
used as attractants in the Florida trap fishery. Fishery
Bulletin 84(1):69-76.

Ingle, R. M., B. Eldred, H. W. Sims and E. A. Eldred. 1963. On
the possible Caribbean origin of Florida's lobster
populations. Fla. Board Conservation, Marine Lab., Tech.
Series #40. 12 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. 1977. Observations on recruitment of
postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to the south
Florida coast. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research Publ. #29. 35 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. 1972. Tagging of spiny lobsters (Panulirus
argus) in the Florida Keys, 1967-1969. FDNR, Marine Research
Lab., Special Scientific Report #31. 17 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. and G. R. Milano. 1980. Techniques to monitor
recruitment of postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus,
to the Florida Keys. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research Publ. #37. 16 pp.

Lyons, W. G. 1981. Possible sources of Florida's spiny lobster
population. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries
Institute: 33:290-300.

Lyons, W. G. 1986. Problems and perspectives regarding
recruitment of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to the south
Florida fishery. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
43(11):2099-2106.

Lyons, W. G., D. G. Barber, S. M. Foster, F. S. Kennedy, Jr., and
G. R. Milano. 1981. The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in
the middle and upper Florida Keys: population structure,
seasonal dynamics and reproduction. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research
Publ. #38, 38 pp.

Marx, J. M. 1986. Settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus,
peruli in south Florida: an evaluation from two perspectives
Canad. Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(11):2221-2227.

Sims, H. W., Jr. 1965. Let's call the spiny lobster "spiny lobster."
Crustaceana 8(1):109-110.

Vermeer, G. K. 1987. Effects of air exposure on dessication rate,
hemolymph chemistry and escape behavior of the spiny
lobster, Panulirus argus. Fishery Bulletin 85(1):45-51.

Witham, R., R. M. Ingle and E. A. Joyce, Jr. 1968. Physiological
and ecological studies of Panulirus argus from the St.
Lucie estuary. Fla. Board Conservation, Marine Laboratory
Technical Series #53, 31 pp.



damsel fish - вж.
http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgflower/sse/ss...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:05169fc2d115d67a:www.sa...

http://www.aqualink.com/catalogs/ydamsel.html

http://ne.essortment.com/damselfish_rzqi.htm

Some fish and corals have symbiotic relationships, such as this damsel fish swimming within branching stony coral. The coral branches provide the fish protection from predators, and the fish excretes nitrogen in the form of ammonia, which the coral uses for growth.

The Damsels are very popular starter fish. They are readily available and very inexpensive. They are great starter fish and reef inhabitants. They are easily fed and not particularly aggressive. They are schooling fish which can be somewhat territorial if left in the same surroundings for too long. They are capable of surviving in poor water conditions.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What are damsel fish



Small, active and often brilliantly colored, the damsel fish is found mostly in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans, although a few species can be found in the more temperate areas and some even in fresh waters. Often referred to as the Demoiselle fish, the damsel fish is known to make its home along coral reef areas where they can be observed swimming in schools or pairs. Amazingly there are some species of the damsel fish that are even known to live within the sea anemones reaching tentacles. This species is known as the anemone fishes and because of its association with the anemones, it is one of the better known species. One of the more interesting fact about the anemone fishes is that each species appears to have a specific species of anemone they choose to live among. All anemone fishes, which are often called clown fish, are so closely related in body shape, color and markings that it is very difficult to distinguish the different species. In most cases they are yellow-orange in color with three brilliant white stripes but some species range from rose to deep red with the placement of the white bands located in other areas of the body.


Oddly enough, even though the anemone is known to be deadly to many other species of fish the anemone fishes appear to remain immune as long as they are healthy. Anemone fishes spend most of their lives within the stinging branches of the anemone swimming, sleeping, eating, hiding from danger and even laying their eggs at the base where they remain protected from most predators. The only time this fish becomes susceptible to the anemone poison cells or is eaten by the anemone is when it has become diseased. The anemone fish has even been observed taking food from the anemone's mouth without any threat of danger. The clown fish has become a popular aquarium specimen and has even been successfully bred in captivity. Even so, once these fish are placed in an aquarium they tend to loose their sense of choosing a special species of anemone to live within, tending to associate with those they may not encounter in their natural habitats.


The damsel fish is a very aggressive fish that will defend its chosen territory at all cost. Closely related to the cichlids, these fish from the suborder of perch displays a variety of coloring from blues, reds, oranges to yellow. Nasal openings is found on each side of the short head and in most of the species the tail is forked. In most species their food sources are found in the vast fields of seaweed although some species feed on zooplankton and copepods. This fish is well known for defending its home and food source from other herbivores that attempt to intrude on their territory. It is even believed that the damsel fish might possibly cultivate its algae fields by removing species of the plant that are undesirable. Some of the more interesting species of damsel fishes that are kept in aquariums might include the sergeant majors which are known for the the amazing contrast of their blue bodies and yellow-brown fins. The beau gregory and yellowtail damsel fish are also known to make a colorful addition to an aquarium. The fresh water species of the damsel fish, Pomacentrus, can usually be found in areas where they have migrated into rivers from the Indo-Pacific areas. Like other species of damsel fishes they feed mostly on plant matter and in some species small animals trapped on the waters surface.



Written by Carolyn Hachquet


goat fish (mullus auratus, Mulliodichthys flavolineatus)
- вж.
http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:bd531a6b9d95e24d:web.ai...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:3adc06bea222922a:www.fi...

This greatly admired and delightful fish got its name because of the goat like sterns that extend from its mouth. The size of these fish varies. The goat fish generally has a light grayish color, with white spots. The goat fish lives on the coral reef, and feeds on sea weed and other such substances.





blue fish -(зоол.) лефер (Pomatomus saltatrix)

kelp - кафяви морски водорасли; пепел от тези водорасли, от които се прави йод
urchin - морски таралеж

Selected response from:

Andrei Vrabtchev
Bulgaria
Local time: 23:56
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naвж. по-долу
Andrei Vrabtchev


  

Answers


1 hr
вж. по-долу


Explanation:
snapper - вж.
http://www.snap-shot.com/frame/ocean.htm

http://www.snap-shot.com/pages/fish/turtles.html

spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) - вид омар (Homarus); вж.

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:b5728132c2b3fb6b:www.ep...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:b70a4592447a5d26:soma.n...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:2af8fb352d8d04e3:www.pb...

This is G o o g l e's cache of http://www.epa.gov/gumpo/seast11.html.
G o o g l e's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web.
The page may have changed since that time. Click here for the current page without highlighting.


Google is not affiliated with the authors of this page nor responsible for its content.
These search terms have been highlighted: spiny lobster



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Back to Gulf Information Network


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sea-Stats No. 11 - Spiny Lobster
A summary of information and statistics on the marine organisms common in Florida waters

Table of Contents
Classification
Description
Distribution and Habitat
Life History
Migration
Feeding
Parasites and Diseases
Fishing Gear and Methods/Regulations
Farming Potential
Handling and Processing/Nutritional Value
Economic Importance/Historical Notes
Similar Species in Florida Waters
Glossary
References

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Florida Department of Natural Resources Florida Marine Research Institute 100 Eighth Avenue, Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spiny Lobster
V. N. Stewart
Classification

The Florida spiny lobster, a favored seafood, is classified in the Phylum Arthropoda (animals with jointed legs), Class Crustacea (having a "crust" or hard outer shell) and Order Decapoda (having ten legs). Shrimp also fit this classification, but they are considered to be "swimming" decapod crustaceans of the Suborder Natantia (meaning swimming). Lobsters are in the Suborder Reptantia: bottom-dwelling, "crawling" animals. All arthropods are invertebrate animals, without backbones.

Spiny lobsters are also known as crawfish; sometimes they are also called langosta and crayfish. The scientific name is Panulirus argus. The generic name, Panulirus, is an anagram of Palinurus, another spiny lobster and the first named. The species name, argus, refers to the large "eyespots" on the carapace and is derived from Greek mythology: Argus was a giant with a hundred eyes.

Description

The animal is called "spiny" because of the strong, forward- curving spines projecting from the hard shell covering its body. The spines can present a hazard to anyone handling the live animal without protecting the hands with gloves. Hard spines are also located above the eye orbits for protection. There are no claws. Two whip-like antennae are longer than the body.

Being a decapod crustacean, the animal has five pairs of walking legs. On the seafloor, the sharp-pointed legs enable the animal to move about freely. A lobster may also swim rapidly backward by flapping its powerful tail. The fifth pair of legs of the female bears a claw or spur-like growth which is used to clean the eggs she may carry and to scratch the sperm packet.

The body has two main parts, the cephalothorax ("head" section) and abdomen ("tail" section). The cephalothorax comprises the head, a cape-like carapace or shell, the mouth parts and the ten walking legs. The abdomen (tail) is narrower than the forward section; the shell covering the tail is divided into six ring- like segments. The hard shell covering each segment ends in two unequal teeth on each side of the body. Four pairs of small leaf-like structures, called swimmerets, are found under the tail. Female spiny lobsters carry their eggs in the swimmerets. The tail ends in a flat, flexible fan, consisting of a broad center section (the telson) and two lobes on each side (the uropods).

To distinguish between the sexes, examine the underside of the cephalothorax. In the male, sperm duct openings are found at the base of the fifth pair of walking legs, those nearest the tail section. The sperm ducts become greatly enlarged during the breeding season. Male swimmerets are single and paddle-like. In females, eggs are discharged through a small opening at the base of the third (central) pair of legs. Female swimmerets are bilobed, resembling small pincers and, as noted, carry the eggs. The fifth pair of legs of the female is adapted for tending the eggs.

Spiny lobsters vary in color. They may range from very light, almost white, to very dark, almost black or red-orange. In general, spiny lobsters from inshore, shallower waters are lighter in color than those from deeper reefs.

Perhaps the most easily recognized identifying characters are the large yellow spots bordered by a darker color on each side of the second and sixth segments of the tail. Smaller spots are scattered over other segments in rather regular bands.

Distribution and Habitat

Spiny lobsters are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. They occur in Bermuda, the West Indies and south Florida. They have been reported as far north as Beaufort, North Carolina and south to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They support a major fishery in south Florida waters, especially in the Keys.

Adult spiny lobsters are gregarious, favoring rocky outcrops, sponges and patch reefs where they hide in the daytime and emerge to hunt for food at night.

Juvenile lobsters settle in nearshore shallow waters, hiding in seaweeds. As they mature, they move out to seaward reefs.

Life History

Females carry the fertilized eggs for about three weeks before they hatch, producing phyllosome larvae - tiny, flat, spider-like creatures that are transparent except for pigments in the eyes. Phyllosomes drift in ocean currents for up to nine months and pass through 11 stages of development before changing into a transparent, swimming, lobster-like form called a puerulus. Transparency helps protect phyllosomes and the puerulus from predators. During the three to four week interval of the puerulus stage, the animal does not feed. The puerulus swims directionally until it reaches suitable nearshore habitat where it settles to the bottom, molts and continues its development as a juvenile spiny lobster. Juvenile pigmentation serves to camouflage small lobsters in the algae where they live. The body form resembles that of adults. Juveniles live on the sea floor among rocks, algae and seagrass beds in shallow waters. With increasing size, they move to deeper waters and as they mature they migrate to seaward reefs. Reproductive maturity is attained at about three (plus) years of age, including the larval period.

To grow, spiny lobsters must shed their hard outer skeleton by molting, just as other crustaceans do. The joint between the head and tail section splits and the animal backs out of the old carapace, or "shell," emerging soft and vulnerable. The soft animal quickly absorbs water, expands and the largernew carapace hardens. Young lobsters molt often, older ones less frequently, perhaps only once a year.

When lobsters mate, principally from March through July, the male deposits a sperm mass, called a spermatophore, or tarspot, on the female. During spawning, the female discharges eggs which are fertilized as they pass over the spermatophore. She may release from 250,000 to a million eggs each time she spawns. The eggs are attached to her underside; an egg-bearing female is referred to as "berried." Eggs hatch after three to four weeks and the complex life cycle begins anew with the microscopic phyllosome larvae.

Migration

Much of the life of a spiny lobster involves travel. While drifting in the sea for nine months, the phyllosome may travel great distances. As a puerulus, it swims shoreward by night and lives on the sea-floor by day. In the juvenile stage it lives in shallow nearshore waters and as it matures it moves to seaward reefs.

Adult lobsters, on occasion, participate in mass migrations. They queue up in nearly military lines and march in shallow or deeper water. The leader sets the course and speed; new leaders take their place periodically, as though distributing the work of leadership. Each animal uses its antennae to maintain contact with the one ahead of it in the line. It is not known where such lines go or even why they occur.

Studies by the Florida Marine Research Institute have observed movement of individual animals up and down an offshore reef tract, up to distances of 50 or 60 miles at rates up to two miles per day.

Feeding

The diet of spiny lobsters varies with their life stages. Larvae are carnivores that feed on other tiny animals adrift in the sea. Pueruli are not known to feed. Juvenile and adult animals are opportunistic, feeding to some extent on nearly any available plant or animal. They seem to prefer mollusks and small crustaceans, however.

Parasites and Diseases

There is little information available regarding the incidence of parasites and diseases in spiny lobster populations. However, injuries to the animals due to recreational and commercial harvesting practices result in the redirection of growth energy to energy for regeneration and repair of damaged appendages and wounds. Reduced growth rates have been documented to be as great as 40% in areas where there is a high rate of injury, such as in the juvenile nursery grounds.

Using shorts (lobsters under minimum legal size) as live attractants in traps puts great stress on the animals, and though not a "disease" in the usual sense, causes heavy mortality of young animals. The Florida Keys fishery uses at least a million shorts as attractants annually, resulting in a mortality rate of more than 25% of the lobsters transported as bait.

Fishing Gear and Methods/Regulations

In view of the many impacts on spiny lobsters in Florida waters, new regulations became effective in 1988, and several fishery practices will be phased out, effective in 1990.


Recreational Fishery

In the regular season, beginning 6 August through 31 March each year, six lobsters per person or 24 per boat, whichever is greater, are allowed. There is no off-water possession limit. The two-day special recreational season occurs on the last full weekend prior to 1 August each year.


Commercial Fishery

The pre-season trap soaking period begins on 1 August. The harvest season begins 6 August and extends through 31 March.

As of 1 August 1990, use of undersized (short) lobsters as attractants will be prohibited. Until 1 April 1990, no more than 50 undersized lobsters per boat or one per trap on board a boat, whichever is greater, will be allowed in state waters. Other restrictions apply, such as requirements to keep the animals alive in a shaded, continuously circulating live-well with pumping capability to totally replace the water every eight minutes and large enough to provide at least 3/4 gallons of water per lobster. The lobsters must be returned alive to the water daily.

After 1 April 1990, plastic traps will not be permitted.

The rules listed below are now in effect. Commercial divers must display a "diver down" flag and mark the boat with a permanent identification number on a placard no smaller than 16 X 20 inches. Divers are prohibited from exceeding the daily recreational bag limit while fishing at night. All divers harvesting spiny lobsters must possess, while in the water, a lobster carapace-measuring device and each measurement shall occur in the water.

Any directed net fishery, other than hand-held nets, is prohibited.

Also included in the rules is a ban on the harvest or possession of egg-bearing slipper lobsters. Alhough slipper lobsters are not discussed in this publication, fishermen should be aware of the new regulations protecting slipper lobsters.

A minimum three-inch carapace length continues to be the legal size for spiny lobsters (P. argus). Animals must remain in a whole condition at all times while being transported on or below state waters. No egg-bearing females may be taken. The use of grains, spears, grabs, hooks or similar devices is prohibited.

Molesting, taking or trapping spiny lobster within the Biscayne Bay-Card Sound Crawfish Sanctuary (in Dade and Monroe counties) is prohibited. The sanctuary is a major nursery ground for juvenile spiny lobsters. The taking of lobsters is also prohibited in Everglades and Fort Jefferson National Parks and trapping is prohibited in the Core Area at Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary.

In the 21-year period from 1963 to 1984, the annual catch per trap decreased from 45 pounds to 8 pounds. Competition in this crowded, over-capitalized fishery has led to practices which severely threaten its survival. The regulations now in place are a step toward protecting egg-bearing females and undersized animals. Because regulations are subject to change for more effective management, it is wise to check with the Florida Marine Patrol periodically for updated information on the laws.

Farming Potential

Considering the complex life history of spiny lobsters, such as the nine months for drifting phyllosomes, the habitat demands of the puerulus and juvenile stages, and the needs of the adult animals, the potential for "farming" lobster is dim at this time. No one has, to date, reared spiny lobster from an egg to a mature adult.

Handling and Processing/Nutritional Value

Spiny lobsters are generally available in the marketplace as cooked, then frozen, whole lobsters or tails. Allow about one pound of whole lobster per person, which yields approximately 1/3 pound of cooked lobster meat.

The succulent meat of lobster tails accounts for their popularity. As with other crustaceans, such as crabs and shrimp, lobster rates high as a good nutritional choice. Approximately 18% is protein, with a fat content of 1.4%. There are 98 calories per 100 grams (about 3-1/2 ounces) and 296 milligrams of sodium.

Economic Importance/Historical Notes


Spiny lobsters have long been an important commercial south Florida fishery, particularly in the Keys. They have also supported an economically significant recreational fishery. The tasty seafood attracts sports divers to the Keys in great numbers. Motel bookings are often made a year in advance. The combined efforts of sport and commercial fishing have placed a serious stress on the stock. Though fishery effort has continued to increase, the annual catch during the last ten years has remained fairly stable. Recent studies, however, suggest that the present commercial landings could be accomplished with one- third to one-fifth of the effort now expended.

Since 1976, the five-year averages of landings reflects a continuing decline. Widespread use of shorts (under legal size) began in 1976, allowing fishermen to possess 200 on board each vessel for bait. With 675,000 traps in the water in 1984, this procedure alone caused the mortality of a significant portion of the potential harvest.

Following the closure of the Bahamian Banks to American fishermen in 1975, greater effort was directed to the Keys and south Florida. Cuban immigrants also entered the fishery. It is estimated that recreational fishermen take at least 10% of the total catch.


Spiny Lobster Landings, 1976-1988

Year Pounds Average_Per_Year

1976 5,345,522
1977 6,344,116
1978 5,601,903
1979 7,779,399
1980 6,694,842
6,353,156 (5-yr average)
1981 5,894,005
1982 6,496,804
1983 4,316,652
1984 6,166,652
1985 4,904,690
5,555,761 (5-yr average)
1986 5,029,040
1987 6,091,914
1988** 5,675,988**
5,598,981 (3-yr average)

Average landings, pounds per year,
1976-1988: 5,872,425 (13-yr average)

** Preliminary data for 1988.

To improve this stressed fishery and protect future stocks, scientists have recommended measures to better manage the fishery. Some of the suggestions are being initiated (see Regulations) but there must be constant monitoring of the stock to determine effectiveness. More stringent measures may be required. International management of spiny lobster fisheries is recommended to assure the well-being of the Caribbean/American stocks.

Similar Species in Florida Waters



Panulirus guttatus, Spotted Crawfish

This species is very similar to P. argus in body shape but is smaller. Its ground-color is darker (dark green or purplish blue) and covered with white or orange spots over the entire body, tail, legs and antennae. It has a range similar to P. argus, but is less common inshore, equally common on offshore reefs. It is mainly found in reef environments in all but its larval stages and seldom enters traps.


Panulirus laevicauda, Smooth-tailed Crawfish

The smooth-tailed crawfish has a bluish-green to purplish cast and small white spots are found mainly on the sides of the tail, not on the upper surface. The legs have longitudinal stripes. It is found in small numbers in waters of southeast Florida.

Several species of slipper (scyllarid) lobsters are also found in Florida waters, such as the sand and shovel-nosed lobsters. They all lack the long antennae of the spiny lobsters. The antennae are shaped like flat paddles, and are believed to be used for passive defense.

Glossary

carapace:
hard covering or "shell;" the outer covering of shrimps, crabs and lobster.
bilobed:
having two lobes or parts.
larva, larvae (pl.):
immature form, different in appearance than the adult form.
metamorphosis:
change in form and habits of an organism, usually quite dramatic.
shorts:
lobsters of sublegal size, less than three-inch carapace length.
References

Anonymous. 1987. Question: Can the common Florida spiny lobster
be farmed commercially? Sea Frontiers 33(6):459-460.

Anonymous. 1986. Where do baby Florida lobsters live? Sea
Frontiers 32(6):465.

Chandler-Middleton, K. 1985. In search of spiny lobster larvae.
Sea Frontiers 31(2):86-93.

Heatwole, D. W., J. H. Hunt and F. S. Kennedy. 1988. Catch
efficienceis of live lobster decoys and other attractants in
the Florida spiny lobster fishery. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research
Publ. 44. 15 pp.

Herrnkind, W. F. 1975. Strange march of the spiny lobster.
National Geographic 147(6):818-831.

Hunt, J. H. and W. G. Lyons. 1986. Factors affecting growth and
maturation of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in the
Florida Keys. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
43(11):2243-2247.

Hunt, J. H., W. G. Lyons and F. S. Kennedy, Jr. 1986. Effects of
exposure and confinement on spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus,
used as attractants in the Florida trap fishery. Fishery
Bulletin 84(1):69-76.

Ingle, R. M., B. Eldred, H. W. Sims and E. A. Eldred. 1963. On
the possible Caribbean origin of Florida's lobster
populations. Fla. Board Conservation, Marine Lab., Tech.
Series #40. 12 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. 1977. Observations on recruitment of
postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to the south
Florida coast. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research Publ. #29. 35 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. 1972. Tagging of spiny lobsters (Panulirus
argus) in the Florida Keys, 1967-1969. FDNR, Marine Research
Lab., Special Scientific Report #31. 17 pp.

Little, E. J., Jr. and G. R. Milano. 1980. Techniques to monitor
recruitment of postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus,
to the Florida Keys. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research Publ. #37. 16 pp.

Lyons, W. G. 1981. Possible sources of Florida's spiny lobster
population. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries
Institute: 33:290-300.

Lyons, W. G. 1986. Problems and perspectives regarding
recruitment of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to the south
Florida fishery. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
43(11):2099-2106.

Lyons, W. G., D. G. Barber, S. M. Foster, F. S. Kennedy, Jr., and
G. R. Milano. 1981. The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in
the middle and upper Florida Keys: population structure,
seasonal dynamics and reproduction. FDNR, Fla. Marine Research
Publ. #38, 38 pp.

Marx, J. M. 1986. Settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus,
peruli in south Florida: an evaluation from two perspectives
Canad. Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(11):2221-2227.

Sims, H. W., Jr. 1965. Let's call the spiny lobster "spiny lobster."
Crustaceana 8(1):109-110.

Vermeer, G. K. 1987. Effects of air exposure on dessication rate,
hemolymph chemistry and escape behavior of the spiny
lobster, Panulirus argus. Fishery Bulletin 85(1):45-51.

Witham, R., R. M. Ingle and E. A. Joyce, Jr. 1968. Physiological
and ecological studies of Panulirus argus from the St.
Lucie estuary. Fla. Board Conservation, Marine Laboratory
Technical Series #53, 31 pp.



damsel fish - вж.
http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgflower/sse/ss...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:05169fc2d115d67a:www.sa...

http://www.aqualink.com/catalogs/ydamsel.html

http://ne.essortment.com/damselfish_rzqi.htm

Some fish and corals have symbiotic relationships, such as this damsel fish swimming within branching stony coral. The coral branches provide the fish protection from predators, and the fish excretes nitrogen in the form of ammonia, which the coral uses for growth.

The Damsels are very popular starter fish. They are readily available and very inexpensive. They are great starter fish and reef inhabitants. They are easily fed and not particularly aggressive. They are schooling fish which can be somewhat territorial if left in the same surroundings for too long. They are capable of surviving in poor water conditions.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What are damsel fish



Small, active and often brilliantly colored, the damsel fish is found mostly in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans, although a few species can be found in the more temperate areas and some even in fresh waters. Often referred to as the Demoiselle fish, the damsel fish is known to make its home along coral reef areas where they can be observed swimming in schools or pairs. Amazingly there are some species of the damsel fish that are even known to live within the sea anemones reaching tentacles. This species is known as the anemone fishes and because of its association with the anemones, it is one of the better known species. One of the more interesting fact about the anemone fishes is that each species appears to have a specific species of anemone they choose to live among. All anemone fishes, which are often called clown fish, are so closely related in body shape, color and markings that it is very difficult to distinguish the different species. In most cases they are yellow-orange in color with three brilliant white stripes but some species range from rose to deep red with the placement of the white bands located in other areas of the body.


Oddly enough, even though the anemone is known to be deadly to many other species of fish the anemone fishes appear to remain immune as long as they are healthy. Anemone fishes spend most of their lives within the stinging branches of the anemone swimming, sleeping, eating, hiding from danger and even laying their eggs at the base where they remain protected from most predators. The only time this fish becomes susceptible to the anemone poison cells or is eaten by the anemone is when it has become diseased. The anemone fish has even been observed taking food from the anemone's mouth without any threat of danger. The clown fish has become a popular aquarium specimen and has even been successfully bred in captivity. Even so, once these fish are placed in an aquarium they tend to loose their sense of choosing a special species of anemone to live within, tending to associate with those they may not encounter in their natural habitats.


The damsel fish is a very aggressive fish that will defend its chosen territory at all cost. Closely related to the cichlids, these fish from the suborder of perch displays a variety of coloring from blues, reds, oranges to yellow. Nasal openings is found on each side of the short head and in most of the species the tail is forked. In most species their food sources are found in the vast fields of seaweed although some species feed on zooplankton and copepods. This fish is well known for defending its home and food source from other herbivores that attempt to intrude on their territory. It is even believed that the damsel fish might possibly cultivate its algae fields by removing species of the plant that are undesirable. Some of the more interesting species of damsel fishes that are kept in aquariums might include the sergeant majors which are known for the the amazing contrast of their blue bodies and yellow-brown fins. The beau gregory and yellowtail damsel fish are also known to make a colorful addition to an aquarium. The fresh water species of the damsel fish, Pomacentrus, can usually be found in areas where they have migrated into rivers from the Indo-Pacific areas. Like other species of damsel fishes they feed mostly on plant matter and in some species small animals trapped on the waters surface.



Written by Carolyn Hachquet


goat fish (mullus auratus, Mulliodichthys flavolineatus)
- вж.
http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:bd531a6b9d95e24d:web.ai...

http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:3adc06bea222922a:www.fi...

This greatly admired and delightful fish got its name because of the goat like sterns that extend from its mouth. The size of these fish varies. The goat fish generally has a light grayish color, with white spots. The goat fish lives on the coral reef, and feeds on sea weed and other such substances.





blue fish -(зоол.) лефер (Pomatomus saltatrix)

kelp - кафяви морски водорасли; пепел от тези водорасли, от които се прави йод
urchin - морски таралеж




    English-Bulgarian dictionary, Second prototype edition, Publishing House 'Nauka i Izkustvo' 1990, volume I
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