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Explanation: This is a tough one. All the 3 suggestions above are good and I am just boncing off one more idea.
"Basics" can be defined as "fundamental facts" so I guess over here, I can call it "basic reality of student life..."
"Weathered" with "-ed" means "survived through" so can we say "熬过学生生活的基本现实"
Another point I would like to highlight is the phrasing of this sentence:
"weathered the "basics" of student life with minimal income, long hours of study etc." I would link "minimal income, long hours of study" with "weathered" rather than "basics" (refer to the first 3 suggestions). I would understand it as "weathered X wth minimal income, long hours of study, etc."