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A little explanation: "boulon" in French is the set "vis + écrou" or "nut + bolt", "vis" is both "bolt" and "screw": anything male and threaded.
The difference is made by specialists between "vis d'assemblage" that works by a pressure from its head (and may have a nut at the end or be threaded into something else, for example wood, sheet, metal, etc) and "vis de pression" that exerts a pressure by its end, and never has a nut
"Vis d'assemblage" is the most common for funirture
We have a problem with the imprecise use of language here, Julie — and cultural differences between EN and FR!
Strictly speaking, these things are (usually) 'machine screws' — they have a cylindrical thread (i.e. unlike a tapering wood-screw, for example), are threaded over their whole length, and screw into some kind of tapped metal insert (may be a kind of captive nut).
Strictly speaking, a bolt usually passes through 2 or more things and is then fastened using a nut on the back of this sandwich; a bolt may also only be threaded for a short length at the 'far' end.
But we use the term quite flexibly in EN, and in particular, in the context of things like DIY furniture, there is a tendency to use 'bolt' for anything with a cylindrical thread, and 'screw' for anything with a tapering thread.
FR usage, however, tends to incline more towards using 'vis' for everything, unless it fulfils more of the function of a (through) bolt (= boulon).
It's that old chestnut of the difference between EN and FR usage being often one of form vs. function.