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in law or equity

German translation: aufgrund Gesetzes oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen

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16:47 Oct 15, 2004
English to German translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law: Contract(s)
English term or phrase: in law or equity
Aus einem Vertrag:

This paragraph does not limit any other remedies that NNN may have against HHH as contained in this Agreement or **in law or equity**.

Ich habe den Satz so übersetzt:

Dieser Absatz schließt in keinerlei Weise andere Rechtsmittel aus, die NNN gegenüber HHH auf vertraglicher oder gesetzlicher Grundlage geltend macht.

Allerdings fällt bei dieser Übersetzung das "equity" elegant unter den Tisch... Hat jemand eine Idee, wie genau dieses "equity" zu verstehen ist und wie ich es übersetzen kann?
Olaf Reibedanz
Colombia
Local time: 01:30
German translation:aufgrund Gesetzes oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen
Explanation:
Diese Übersetzung bevorzuge ich. Die anderen Antworten enthalten ja bereits gute Erläuterungen zur Bedeutung.

Ich hab auch gelegentlich die Übersetzung gesehen: "nach Gesetz oder nach Billigkeitsrecht". Diese Formulierung verwende ich deshalb nicht, weil der Begriff "Recht" nach der "common law tradition" speziell "law" meint, und "equity" historisch als Gegensatz dazu verstanden wird.

Die Formulierung "nach Gesetz und Recht" benutze ich deshalb nicht, weil dies ein Begriff der "statutory law tradition" ist und sich darin der Begriff "Recht" auf Gewohnheitsrecht bezieht und nicht auf Billigkeitserwägungen.
Selected response from:

Beate Boudro
United States
Local time: 23:30
Grading comment
Vielen Dank an alle für die Mühe!!! Ich habe mich zu folgender Übersetzung entschlossen: "auf vertraglicher oder gesetzlicher Grundlage oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen". Ein großes Dankeschön nochmals an alle!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5aufgrund Gesetzes oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen
Beate Boudro
3 +1some more background info
Derek Gill Franßen
3 +1s.u.
ElkeKoe
3Background info - not for points
Kim Metzger


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


26 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
s.u.


Explanation:
Sagt man nicht auch: Nach Recht und Gesetz?

ich habe im Brandstetter noch Folgendes zum Begriff "equity" gefunden:
equity 1.. Billigkeit; equity-Recht
Der anglo-amerikanische Begriff des equity ist nur historisch zu verstehen. Ursprünglich war equity das in den englischen Chancery-Gerichten zum Ausgleich von Härten, zunächst auf die Individualität des Einzelfalles gerichtete, dann aus der Praxis der verbindlichen ®precedents zu einem festen Rechtssystem entwickelte, nicht kodifizierte Billigkeitsrecht, zur Ergänzung des älteren, verhältnismäßig primitiven ®common law, vielfach mit Vorrang vor diesem. Zwar ist in England15 und der Mehrzahl der Einzelstaaten der USA16 das Prozeßrecht der common law- und equity-Gerichte weitgehend vereinheitlicht; der Gegensatz zwischen common law und dem weniger formalistischen equity durchzieht aber auch heute noch das anglo-amerikanische Rechtssystem (trusts, mortgage etc); der Unterschied von legal und equitable rights, der besonders das law of property durchzieht, besteht nach wie vor.

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Note added at 26 mins (2004-10-15 17:14:16 GMT)
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Das equity-Recht hat im anglo-amerikanischen Rechtssystem die gleiche Funktion wie im deutschen Recht das an Hand der ,Billigkeitsklausel\' des § 242 BGB entwickelte Prinzipienbündel, das zur Durchbrechung des positiven Rechts dient. Billigkeit und Treu und Glauben entsprechen sich im Prinzip\".17
Fast ausschließlich Gegenstand des equity-Rechts geworden ist u. a. das Zeichen- und Wettbewerbsrecht. Die besonderen Rechtsbehelfe (equitable remedies) enthalten vor allem die gesamten einstweiligen Verfügungen (injunctions und specific performance)

ElkeKoe
Local time: 07:30
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  swisstell
1 hr
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33 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
Background info - not for points


Explanation:
I don't have a translation for you Olaf, but here's something on the subject that might help clarify the issue.
---
Common law - ... the expression as used in the English-speaking countries does not connote a system of laws that is merely inherited from the ... usages of their ancestors. The dominant idea is rather that of a set of 'shared rules', as is clear from the definition given in the OED: "The unwritten law of England, administered by the King's courts, which purports to be derived from ancient and universal usage."

Statute law: The third and by far the most important source of English law is statute (kodifiziertes Gesetz), i.e. the written laws of legislation drafted and passed by Parliament.

Equity - In modern legal texts, this word is unlikely to be used in the original etymological sense of "fairness" or "natural justice", so that literal translations based on the Latin aequitas are not recommended. As one modern comentator puts it, whatever may have been the case originally, equity "is certainly no longer a court of conscience". As a term of English law it is applied to certain concepts, principles and remedies (Rechtsbehelfe) that were formerly excluded by the common law but were gradually recognized, developed and administered in the Middle Ages by the Lord Chancellor in his role as "keeper of the king's conscience." ...

Nevertheless, this allows the translator to equity as a set of discretionary rules or remedies. Accordingly, in appropriate circumstances proceedings can be brought or remedies applied for under equitable principles, though there are special rules determining parties' rights to do so. For example, there is a basic rule that the normal remedy for breaches of civil law rights is damages (Schadenersatz) - the common-law remedy - and that no other remedy is available if, in the opinion of the court, an award of damages would be adequate. However, if the plaintiff can establish that the defendant's behaviour represents a permanent or continuing threat to their rights, they may be entitled to ask the court for an injunction (einstweilige Verfuegung), which is an equitable remedy. Translators should bear in mind that the English principle embraces both precautionary and discretionary principles.

From Legal Translation Explained - Enrique Alcaraz and Brian Hughes


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Note added at 49 mins (2004-10-15 17:37:13 GMT)
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errata: Nevertheless, this allows the translator to view equity ...

Kim Metzger
Mexico
Local time: 00:30
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 116
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46 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
some more background info


Explanation:
FYI: "Apart from Common Law and Statute Law, the most important department of our legal system is Equity. We sometimes use the term 'equity', or words corresponding to it, in popular language as if it was something altogether outside law. We speak of a judgment in a particular case or of a rule laid down in a judgment as being undoubtedly according to law, but as being 'unfair', or 'unjust', or 'inequitable'. Such a moral judgement in no way affects the law. [...] But when a modern lawyer uses the term 'law' and 'equity' he does not mean to say that equity is not law. He is speaking really of two different kinds of law - the Common Law on the one side, the rules of Equity on the other - which are equally law. They are rules which are not merely morally but legally binding: they are enforced by the courts.

The relation between law and equity
(1) The distinction between law and equity occurs in other systems. Thus the ius honorarium, developed by the praetor's edict, played a vital part in the development of Roman Law. But while in Rome ius honorarium was administered in the same courts as the ius civile, in England law and equity, until the Judicature Act 1873 came into effect in 1875, were administered in different courts.
(2) These two sets of rules, though distinct, must not be looked upon as two co-ordinate and independent systems. On the contrary, the rules of Equity are only a sort of supplement or appendix to the Common Law; they assume its existence but they add something further. In this way Equity is an addendum to the Common Law.
(3) Further, the rules of Equity, though they did not contradict the rules of Common Law, in effect and in practice produced a result opposed to that which would have been produced if the Common Law rules had remained alone. A Common Law right was practically, though not theoretically, nullified by the existence of a countervailing equitable right. In this sense we may speak of a 'conflict or variance' between the rules of Law and the rules of Equity, in the language of section 25 (sub-section 11) of the Judicature Act 1873 (now replaced by section 49 of the Supreme Court Act 1981).
(4) Though since the Judicature Act came into force in 1875 the rules of Common Law and Equity are recognized and administered in the same court, yet they still remain distinct bodies of law, governed largely by different principles. In order to ascertain the rights to which any given set of facts give rise, we must always ask (i) what is the rule of Common Law? (ii) what difference (if any) is made in the working of this rule by the existence of some rule of Equity applying to the case?
(5) Like the Common Law, the rules of Equity are judicial law, i.e. to find them we must look in the first instances to the decisions of the judges who have administered Equity. But some branches of Equity, like some branches of the Common Law, have been restated with amendments and additions in codifying Acts, such as the Partnership Act 1890." (source: Introduction to English Law - Originally Elements of English Law by William Geldart, Oxford University Press 1995).
:-)

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Note added at 51 mins (2004-10-15 17:39:07 GMT)
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Considering all of that, I would say that you are fine in translating \"in law and equity\" as \"gesetzlich\". :-)

Derek Gill Franßen
Germany
Local time: 07:30
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 242

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Laszlo Szabo: und vielleicht: und Gerichtspraxis (cf. case law)
5 hrs
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1 day 2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
aufgrund Gesetzes oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen


Explanation:
Diese Übersetzung bevorzuge ich. Die anderen Antworten enthalten ja bereits gute Erläuterungen zur Bedeutung.

Ich hab auch gelegentlich die Übersetzung gesehen: "nach Gesetz oder nach Billigkeitsrecht". Diese Formulierung verwende ich deshalb nicht, weil der Begriff "Recht" nach der "common law tradition" speziell "law" meint, und "equity" historisch als Gegensatz dazu verstanden wird.

Die Formulierung "nach Gesetz und Recht" benutze ich deshalb nicht, weil dies ein Begriff der "statutory law tradition" ist und sich darin der Begriff "Recht" auf Gewohnheitsrecht bezieht und nicht auf Billigkeitserwägungen.

Beate Boudro
United States
Local time: 23:30
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 48
Grading comment
Vielen Dank an alle für die Mühe!!! Ich habe mich zu folgender Übersetzung entschlossen: "auf vertraglicher oder gesetzlicher Grundlage oder aus Billigkeitserwägungen". Ein großes Dankeschön nochmals an alle!
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