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13:04 Aug 11, 2004
English to Malay translations [PRO]
Science - Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) / schistosomiasis
English term or phrase: schistosomiasis
acute schistosomiasis
These are broadly similar for all species and include:
 circarial dermatitis / "swimmer's itch" - this occurs when the parasites initially enter the skin
 "Katayama fever" - subsequent general malaise, low-grade fever, and eosinophilia - as a result of haematogenous spread. This is an allergic response and usually develops 1-2 months after contact with contaminated water. May be associated with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and diarrhoea. Generally, self-limiting. Katayama fever is more noticeable in S. japonicum infection than other forms
further clinical features depend whether the infection leads to urinary schistomiasis (S. haemotobium) or intestinal schistosomiasis (S. mansoni, S. japonicum, S. intercalatum, S. mekongki

chronic urinary schistosomiasis

After about 2 months, the ova invade the bladder and ureter causing local inflammation. Initially asymptomatic, this may later cause frequency and haematuria. In heavy infection, haematuria may be gross and cause iron deficiency anaemia; in lighter infection, characteristically, haematuria occurs at the end of micturition.
Other features of chronic infection:
 calcified, contracted bladder - from calcification of ova
 bladder cancer - especially, squamous cell carcinoma
 hydro-ureter and hydronephrosis - from ureteric stricture and abnormalities of ureteric paralysis
 chronic pyelonephritis and pyonephrosis - from reflux nepropathy with bacterial superinfection; may cause renal failure and death
less commonly, neurological symptoms from ectopic egg deposition in the spinal cord - usually, a transient paralysis


Haematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
There is no consensus as to what the 'normal' upper limit for red blood cells in the urine should be. Recommendations vary between two and five per high-power field on urine microscopy

The aetiology of haematuria is considered here in two ways:
 with respect to site of bleeding
with respect to frequency of occurrence

Initial assessment

If blood is detected in the urine then a detailed history is required with reference to urological symptoms e.g. frequency, urgency, dysuria. The patient must be questioned regarding symptoms of possible frank haematuria. The patient should be asked about any history of previous urological problems (e.g. calculi) and medication e.g. anticoagulant
 therapy. The patient should be asked about their occupation and whether or not they are/have been a smoker
 physical examination is often unhelpful but must be undertaken. Measurement of blood pressure is important because the combination of microscopic haematuria and hypertension may be indicative of renal disease
 investigations are described in the appropriate section consider urgent referral - see menu item

Haematuria (urgent referral guidance for suspected cancer)
Urgent referral:
 macroscopic haematuria in an adult
 microscopic haematuria in an adult over 50 years of age
 testicular swelling - a swelling(s) in the body of the testes
 a palpable renal mass
 solid renal masses seen on imaging
 an elevated age specific PSA in a man with a ten year life expectancy
 a high PSA (> 20 ng/ml) in men with bone pain or a clinically malignant prostate if penile cancer is suspecte
Haematuria in children
Haematuria in childhood is caused by a spectrum of disease in children similar to the spectrum in adults

 ranks second behind malaria, among human parasitic diseases, in terms of public health and socioeconomic importance in subtropical and tropical areas (1)
 WHO estimates that 200 million are infected worldwide - of these 20 million suffer severe consequences of infection and 120 million are asymptomatic (1); estimated that more than 80% of people with schistosomiasis live in sub-Saharan Africa
 the greatest risk of infection to travellers is when wading or swimming in still freshwater rivers or lakes
 S. haemtobium
o prevalent in the Middle East and in Africa
o causes urinary schistosomiasis
 S. mansoni, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. mekongi
o cause intestinal schistosomiasis
 S. mansoni - prevalent in the Middle East, Africa and parts of South America and the Caribbean
 S. intercalatum - found in countries within the rainforest belt of central Africa
 S. japonicum - found in four countries in the Western Pacific region
S. mekongi - prevalent in Cambodia

Summary of answers provided
Nasima Sarwar



32 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5

schistosomiasis - skistosomiasis

(Penyakit disebabkan fluk darah Schistosoma, bercirikan anemia, keradangan dan pembentukan tisu parut)

Ref: http://www.karyanet.com.my

Nasima Sarwar
Local time: 18:30
Native speaker of: Native in MalayMalay
PRO pts in category: 4
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