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incentive based strategies emission: charges and subsidies

Malay translation: Strategi berdasarkan insentif: Caj dan subsidi bagi emisi

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08:12 Jan 30, 2002
English to Malay translations [Non-PRO]
English term or phrase: incentive based strategies emission: charges and subsidies
Incentive based strategies: Emission charges and subsidies

to build ahouse it is usually necessary to buy some building materials; nobody is likely to supply them for free. architects and carpenters will have to be hired; they won't ordinarily work without compensation. In other words, to use the services of these inputs, we have to pay for them. We are used to doing this because they are costly gives users an incentive to use them as sparingly and efficiently as possible. The economic incentive approach to environmental policy works in much the same way. Until recently people have been able to use these environmental resources. The incentive approach seeks to change this situation.

There are two basically two types of incentive policies:(1) charges and subsidies and(2)transferable discharge permits. Both require centralized policy initiative to get started but rely on flexible firm responses to attain efficient pollution control. In the first, firms are given latitude to respond however they wish to what is essentially a new price for using the services of the environment. The second is designed to work more or less automatically through the interactions among polluters themselves or between polluters and other interested parties. In recent years, U.S environmental laws have begun to incorporate many types of transferable discharge permit systems. In other countries, particularly those of Europe, greater reliance is being put on programs of emission charges. ehibit 12-1 discusses emission charges for water pollution in the Netherlands. In this chapter we examine the economics of emission charges and subsidies. In the next chapter, we will consider the technique of transferable discharge permits.

Environmental economists have long favoured the idea of incorporating incentive based policies more thoroughly into environmental policies. These can serve to put more teeth into environmental policies in many cases and substantially improve the cost-effectiveness of these policies. But keep in mind something said before: No single type of policy is likely to be the best in all circumstances. Incentive based policies are no exception. They have strengths and they have weaknesses. The strengths are sufficiently strong to encourage greater reliance on them in many circumstances. But there are many types of environmental problems where they may not be as useful as other approaches.
rosehadiaty yahya
Malay translation:Strategi berdasarkan insentif: Caj dan subsidi bagi emisi
Explanation:
Menurut KIMD, emisi boleh digunakan bagi bidang fizik & fisiologi. Bagi terjemahan MSDS, emisi sudah diterima sebagai istilah mantap.
Kata-kata lain tidak menjadi masalah. Jika perlu memberi maklumat lanjut, caj: bayaran yang dikenakan manakala subsidi: bantuan biaya yang diterima.
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Abd Latiff Bidin
Local time: 13:02
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5 +2Strategi berdasarkan insentif: Caj dan subsidi bagi emisiAbd Latiff Bidin


  

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6 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
Strategi berdasarkan insentif: Caj dan subsidi bagi emisi


Explanation:
Menurut KIMD, emisi boleh digunakan bagi bidang fizik & fisiologi. Bagi terjemahan MSDS, emisi sudah diterima sebagai istilah mantap.
Kata-kata lain tidak menjadi masalah. Jika perlu memberi maklumat lanjut, caj: bayaran yang dikenakan manakala subsidi: bantuan biaya yang diterima.

Abd Latiff Bidin
Local time: 13:02
Native speaker of: Native in MalayMalay
PRO pts in pair: 213
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Chinoise
176 days

agree  Ramona Ali: .
906 days
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