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|English to Malay translations [Non-PRO]|
Sports / Fitness / Recreation
|English term or phrase: Permenting OF GRAPES and grape juice into wine, is a natural process that has b|
|1. Determining the Pick Date |
The wine-making process begins with the decision to pick the grapes. Although it may seem simple, there are many factors that contribute to this decision; weather is the most important contributing factor. If it is too hot, the grapes have to be picked at night. If a long period of rain is expected, the grapes may have to be picked before optimal maturity levels. Early frosts can have a devastating effect as well as early freezes. The grape variety, combined with wine style, will determine the pick dates. The ripeness of the grape is analyzed and judged. It is then checked for sugar level, acidity levels, pH, colour, health, seed colour, aromas and flavours.
2. Picking the Ripe Grapes
Once the decision has been made to pick, containers are placed into the vineyard and the picking of that grape variety begins. At some vineyards, everything is picked by hand and arrives at the crush platform within eight hours of being picked. It is of great importance that the grapes arrive freshly picked. The processing starts immediately; the grapes are visually checked, weighed, and then processed.
The fresh grapes are tipped out of the bins and placed into the destemmer. As the name suggests, the machine removes the stems because there are astringent, bitter and tannic compounds in the stems that can transfer to the juice or wines if left in contact too long. Once destemmed, the grapes are pumped to one of three vessels (including the press) depending on the grape variety and style of wine to be made.
4. Skin Contact
White aromatic grape varieties receive up to 24 hours of skin contact. This affects a greater release of phenolics and other compounds from the skin of the grape. (It is in the skin that most of these aromas and flavours are stored.) With red wine varieties, the skin also contains the colour pigments. To release the colour, the red wine grape varieties are actually fermented in their skins. A combination of heat, alcohol and natural acids extract colour from the grape skins.
At some point, all the grapes pass through the press. The function of the press is to extract the grape juice or wine from the skins and seeds of the grape. In the case of non-aromatic varieties or champagne-base wines, the grapes are either destemmed first or placed directly into the press. In the case of aromatic varieties like Muscat Ottonel, they are pumped directly into the press after 24 hours of skin contact. Fermented or fermenting red wine grapes are either pumped or dumped from bins into the press. The first juice or red wine to leave the press is classified as the free-run because it leaves the press without any mechanical pressure being placed on it. This juice or wine is always separated and represents the best portion of the pressing. Depending upon the wine style and winery, the second pressed juice might be kept separated and treated for high phenolics or blended away.
6. Cold Settling
White wine “must” is cold-settled and racked fresh from the press. This removes any grape skin particles that might have travelled with the juice from the press. The result is a clean grape must which is ready for fermentation.
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