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The History of Glass Making
No one knows exactly when or where glass was first made. Glass appears to have been produced as far back as the second millennium BC by the Egyptians & perhaps the Phoenicians. Yet evidently it originated in Mesopotamia, where pieces of well made glass have been found, believed to date from the third millennium BC.
Glass was a lot less common back then than it is today. It was very precious, and in the Bible glass has been compared to gold. (Job 28:17)
The art of glass making eventually reached Egypt. The Egyptians used a method called core-forming. A shaped core was made of clay and dung, then molten glass was wrapped around it and shaped by rolling it on a smooth surface.
It was very much later, around the end of the 1st century BC, that a new method, glass blowing would revolutionise glass production. This art was probably discovered along the Eastern Mediterranean coast, probably is Syria. By blowing through a hollow tube, the experienced glassblower can quickly produce intricate and symmetrical shapes out of the "gather" of molten glass at the end of his tube (rod). Alternatively, he can blow the molten glass into a mould.
The glassblowing innovation, along with the backing of the powerful Roman Empire, made glass products more accessible to the common people. As the size of the Roman Empire increased, the art of glass making spread spread to many countries.