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Explanation: also called STARTLE PATTERN, an extremely rapid psychophysiological response of an organism to a sudden and unexpected stimulus such as a loud sound or a blinding flash of light. In human beings it is characterized by involuntary bending of the limbs and a spasmodic avoidance movement of the head. Musculature returns to normal in less than one second, although elevations in heart rate, respiration, and skin conductance persist slightly longer. The startle pattern occurs in all normal humans and all mammals when tested in a relatively uniform manner. The pattern is resistant to extinction or modification by learning, although its intensity may be reduced by repetition or anticipation. The response seems to be an instinctive mechanism for self-defense and, in humans, is probably the initiating element of more general emotional reactions, both motor expressions and conscious experiences. The startle reaction--known as the Moro, or Moro embrace, reflex in children--is particularly conspicuous in infants up to three or four months old