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|English to Russian translations [PRO]|
Tech/Engineering - Engineering (general)
|English term or phrase: Cylinder papers (multi-layer heavyweight paper)|
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Local time: 12:21
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бумага машинной сушки (многослойная плотная бумага)
The making of paper
Paper is made of fibers that are interwoven together, usually in sheet form. The making of paper falls into 3 categories: handmade, mouldmade and machine made. Handmade papers are still made in much the same manner today as they were centuries ago, by scooping pulp from a vat onto a mould by hand. Mouldmade papers emulate handmade papers, but the cylinder-mould machine works on a larger and faster scale than the handmaking process. Cylinder-mould machine papers, though different than handmade papers, are often considered to be half handmade and half machine made. Machine made papers, made on a Fordrinier papermaking machine, are made and dried much faster than cylinder-mould papers, utilizing a different quality of pulp.
The following are some common terms used in papermaking:
Furnish – This describes the basic ingredients that make up the paper. Cellulose fibers from plants make up the furnish from which paper is made. The best papers are made from plants high in cellulose.
Beating – The process of treating fibers mechanically in water. During the beating process several things occur.
1. Cutting-a shortening of the fiber length
2. Fibrillation-shredding and bruising of the fibers
3. Hydration-when the fibers absorb water
This beating process determines the strength, the bulk, the porosity, and the type of paper being made, depending on the ratios between the cutting, fibrillation and the hydration of the beaten fibers.
Types of papers
The majority of machine made papers are made from a mixture of fibers of hardwood and softwood, while papers made from fibers of cotton, linen, jute, ramie, and esparto are a different quality and more expensive.
Cotton fibers yield a pure cellulose. Cotton linters and cotton rags are the types of material available to the papermaker from the cotton plant. Cotton linters are the principle fibers used in hand and mouldmade papers today. Cotton rags are longer, tougher fibers than cotton linters, but are rarely used in papermaking today. Papers that are described as "rag" papers may actually be cotton linters.
Linen covers a variety of raw materials known as flax or linen. The long, tubular fibers impart a strong, smooth, silky feeling paper.
Jute is a fiber which does not fibrillate or bleach easily. It is native to India and the Far East.
Hemp from China, produces a hard, course paper.
Kozo, Mitsumata, and Gampi are native papers of Japan. Kozo is a tough paper that retains its strength even when crumpled or folded. Gampi papers are translucent and tough. They have a wet strength and resistance to insects. Mitsumata is soft, smooth and glossy and also naturally insect resistant.
Esparto grasses are leaf fibers which are used in the Far East. Grass fibers include bamboo, giant nettle, rice straw and rattan.
Wood pulp is the material from which the majority of the world's current papers are made. Today there is a process designed to isolate the cellulose from the wood resins to produce "high alpha cellulose" which promises to be comparable to most rag papers in longevity.
Properties of Paper
Permanence – For permanence, the fibers must be as pure cellulose as possible. Cotton is 100% cellulose, whether rags or linters. Wood pulp varies in cellulose content but high alpha wood pulp can be 93% cellulose, almost as pure as cotton. The fibers are shorter, however, so the characteristics differ. Many artists papers today are labeled acid free. These are generally neutral pH at the time of manufacture, but factors such as environmental conditions can affect this neutrality even before the artist purchases the paper, and afterwards. For this reason many papers have a "buffering" agent [an alkaline substance such as calcium or magnesium] added during the papermaking process to protect the paper.
Surface or Texture – The surface or texture of paper varies according to the fibers, the beating, the drying process, or other factors. In general there are 3 terms used to describe the surface of hand and mouldmade papers.
The paper used in the manufacture of coated abrasives is durable, strong and ideal for light applications, both by hand and with sanding devices, since the surface of the paper provides better finishes. Three are several weights or thicknesses of paper backings, from weight A (the lightest) to weight E (the heaviest). For wet applications, waterproof papers are used. These papers are impregnated with different types of synthetic elastomers that enhance important properties of the paper such as wet strength, pliability and resistance to moisture. Light papers are coated with fine abrasive grains, adequate for a final finish of the materials. Those of intermediate weight are covered with coarser grains, adequate for intermediate sanding operations. The heavy or cylinder papers are coated with the entire range of abrasive grains and are recommended for manual or stationary sanding equipment. The principal difference between the light and the heavy paper is strength: heavy paper has a lengthwise tensile strength almost twice that of light or intermediate papers
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