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"mortgage, charge, pledge"

Russian translation: a little context

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14:04 Sep 21, 2007
English to Russian translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law: Contract(s) / from a Share Mortgage Deed
English term or phrase: "mortgage, charge, pledge"
Подскажите, пожалуйста, как с юридической точки зрения, правильно разграничить в рус. переводе указанные типы обременения ("mortgage, charge, pledge") в следующем контексте:
Encumbrance means a mortgage, charge, pledge, lien or other encumbrance securing any obligation of any person or any arrangement under which money held with a bank or other financial institution may be applied, set off or made subject to a combination of accounts so as to effect discharge of any sum owed or payable to any person or any other type of preferential arrangement (including any title transfer and retention arrangement) having a similar effect;
YelenaS
Russian translation:a little context
Explanation:
I don't know if this helps, but all these terms used to have very specific meanings in U.S. property security law based on the type of collateral and who had possession of the collateral.

The meanings varied from state to state, but generally a mortgage was an encumbrance on real estate, a charge was an encumbrance on someone's accounts receivable, a pledge was an emcumbrance on a movable object that the lender kept possession of (like a pawn shop)...and there were several others.

So it used to be necessary to have this long list in a document. Now these terms have all been subsumed by the term "security interest" but some of the older language remains. I'll try to dig up comparable terms but I'm not sure they exist.

I remember reading that ipoteka was somehow different than mortgage because it comes from Roman law as opposed to Anglo-Saxon, but I don't remember the details at the moment.

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Note added at 2 час (2007-09-21 16:32:28 GMT)
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I guess I would go with ипотека или любой вид залога.

Pledge is ручной залог in Russian and charge could be a number of different types of залог.

Some definitions:

Mortgage
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/IPOTEKA-2333.html

Charge
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/CHARGE-PLATA-ZALOG-9638.h...

Pledge
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/PLEDGE-RUCHNOJ-ZALOG-1122...
Selected response from:

Deborah Hoffman
Local time: 04:09
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +1a little contextDeborah Hoffman
4 +1выставлять (использовать) или обещать в качестве залога, обеспечения
Michael Tovbin
4любой вид залога, включая ипотеку, удержание имущества и другие способы обеспечения обязательств
cheeter
3ипотека, ограничение, залог, право преимущественного удовлетворенияThe Misha


Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


41 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
ипотека, ограничение, залог, право преимущественного удовлетворения


Explanation:
These are the translations readily available from multitran. However, are you sure they even make those fine distinctions in the existing Russian practice yet? I's d simply say "... любой вид обременения недвижимого имущества" or something like that.

The Misha
Local time: 04:09
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in category: 59

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Clue: Надо переводить все; lien - право удержания; у Блэка charge - encumbrence, lien, or claim: поскольку все остальное тоже перечисляется, предлагаю charge перевести как права требования (claim)
1 hr
  -> Balck does not do a prticularly good job here, since all off the above are encumbrances. If theres' no distinction btw them in the target language, why even bother? That's why I suggested they scrap them. Thanks for your comment

disagree  cheeter: залог - более общий термин (вкл. ипотеку), ограничение - только для недвижимого имущества.
16 hrs
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41 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
выставлять (использовать) или обещать в качестве залога, обеспечения


Explanation:
все эти слова означают одно и то же - закладывать, только mortgage и charge, как правило относятся к крупным предметам, а pledge к более мелким

Michael Tovbin
United States
Local time: 03:09
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in category: 55

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  The Misha: That's essentially what I am saying too, let's scrap the virtually non-existing distinction
2 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
a little context


Explanation:
I don't know if this helps, but all these terms used to have very specific meanings in U.S. property security law based on the type of collateral and who had possession of the collateral.

The meanings varied from state to state, but generally a mortgage was an encumbrance on real estate, a charge was an encumbrance on someone's accounts receivable, a pledge was an emcumbrance on a movable object that the lender kept possession of (like a pawn shop)...and there were several others.

So it used to be necessary to have this long list in a document. Now these terms have all been subsumed by the term "security interest" but some of the older language remains. I'll try to dig up comparable terms but I'm not sure they exist.

I remember reading that ipoteka was somehow different than mortgage because it comes from Roman law as opposed to Anglo-Saxon, but I don't remember the details at the moment.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 час (2007-09-21 16:32:28 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I guess I would go with ипотека или любой вид залога.

Pledge is ручной залог in Russian and charge could be a number of different types of залог.

Some definitions:

Mortgage
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/IPOTEKA-2333.html

Charge
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/CHARGE-PLATA-ZALOG-9638.h...

Pledge
http://mirslovarei.com/content_eco/PLEDGE-RUCHNOJ-ZALOG-1122...

Deborah Hoffman
Local time: 04:09
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 32

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  The Misha: Thanks for the historical background. S, charge would be pretty much the same as garnish, right?
1 hr
  -> Spasibo, TM! Where I live garnishment refers to a procedure after someone has been sued. The term is typically used for seizing wages and bank accounts. There may be other states where it's different and for the UK I have no idea!
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17 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
любой вид залога, включая ипотеку, удержание имущества и другие способы обеспечения обязательств


Explanation:
"Под обеспечением исполнения обязательств понимается любой вид залога, включая ипотеку, удержание имущества и другие способы обеспечения обязательств, по которым денежные средства в банке ..."



encumbrance - это способ обеспечения исполнения обязательств.

Способы обеспечения исполнения обязательств по российскому праву - это неустойка, порудчительство, задаток, залог, а также банковская гаранти и удержание имущества должника.
(из Словаря гражданского права. 1998 г.)


В странах общего права (что отражается в английских названиях) зависит от того, является ли объектом движимое (charge, pledge) или недвижимое (mortgage) имущество.

Способы обеспечения обязательств см. в главе Гражданского кодекса РФ "Обеспечение исполнения обязательств".
Залог - более общее понятие, включающее и ипотеку (как залог недвижимого имущества), о чем сказано в статье 334.

Ст. 334. ГК РФ
Понятие и основания возникновения залога
...
Залог земельных участков, предприятий, зданий, сооружений, квартир и другого недвижимого имущества (ипотека) регулируется законом об ипотеке. Общие правила о залоге, содержащиеся в настоящем Кодексе, применяются к ипотеке в случаях, когда настоящим Кодексом или законом об ипотеке не установлены иные правила.


"Обременение (ограничение)" относится только к НЕДВИЖИМОМУ имуществу, а тут речь идет о ДВИЖИМОМ имуществе (денежных средствах).

См. определение из справочника "Терминология российского законодательства: Справочник юриста" (выделение мое):

"Ограничения (обременения). Ограничения (обременения) - наличие установленных законом или уполномоченными органами в предусмотренном законом порядке условий, запрещений, стесняющих правообладателя при осуществлении права сотственности либо иных вещных прав на конкретный ОБЪЕКТ НЕДВИЖИМОГО ИМУЩЕСТВА (сервитута, ипотеки, доверительного управления, аренды, ареста имущества и других)."
Федеральный закон от 21.07.97



    Reference: http://www.gkodeks.ru/codes/330/
cheeter
Local time: 11:09
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in category: 148
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