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Tyres, sometimes called riding rings, usually consist of a single annular steel casting, machined to a smooth cylindrical surface, which attach loosely to the kiln shell through a variety of "chair" arrangements. These require some ingenuity of design, since the tyre must fit the shell snugly, but also allow thermal movement. The tyre rides on pairs of steel rollers, also machined to a smooth cylindrical surface, and set about half a kiln-diameter apart. The rollers must support the kiln, and allow rotation that is as nearly frictionless as possible. A well-engineered kiln, when the power is cut off, will swing pendulum-like many times before coming to rest. The mass of a typical 6 x 60 m kiln, including refractories and feed, is around 1100 tonnes, and would be carried on three tyres and sets of rollers, spaced along the length of the kiln. The longest kilns may have 8 sets of rollers, while very short kilns may have only two. Kilns usually rotate at 0.5 to 2 rpm, but sometimes as fast as 5 rpm. The Kilns of most modern cement plants are running at 4 to 5 rpm. The bearings of the rollers must be capable of withstanding the large static and live loads involved, and must be carefully protected from the heat of the kiln and the ingress of dust. In addition to support rollers, there are usually upper and lower "retaining (or thrust) rollers" bearing against the side of tyres, that prevent the kiln from slipping off the support rollers.