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NEW ASPECTS OF TRADE

Spanish translation: SEE EXPLANATION

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14:01 Oct 31, 2001
English to Spanish translations [Non-PRO]
English term or phrase: NEW ASPECTS OF TRADE
, to a good approximation, a nation that exported manufactured goods and imported raw materials,period; and it was a country that largely traded with raw material producers overseas. By 1992 British imports as well as exports consisted largely of manufactured goods, and most of the country’s trade was with other European nations—that is, with countries with similar resources. It is also true that high proportion of the trade among industrial countries appears to consist of intra-industry trade, two-way trade in goods in the same commodity class. And it was a striking feature of the growth in trade that followed major trade liberalizations among industrial countries, such as the formation of the EEC in 1958 and the United States--Canada auto-pact in 1965that the bulk of the increase in trade consisted of nearly balanced increases in exports and imports within three-digit industrial categories.
It is probably fair to say that the standard explanation for trade in similar products among similar countries is that it is motivated by economies of scale in the production of differentiated products, although there remains some skepticism. The important point for current purposes, however, is that the rise of intra-trade depends on some ways in which the nature of “typical” manufactured products has changes since 1913. to put in briefly, manufactured goods today are more finely differentiated, their manufacture involves the use of a much greater variety ofspecializedintermediate goods (and intra-industry trade consists largely of trade in such intermediates). Cotton textiles, the principal British export in the early stages of industrialization, were a fairly standardized product: one could not really imagine much two-way trade in bolts of cloth. Furthermore, production involved only a few steps, from raw cotton to yarn to cloth, leaving little scope for the vertical disintegrationof the industry. By contrast, modern manufactures—take the overused but inevitable example of automobiles—are highly differentiated, and their production involves a number of different stages. If these stages take a place in different countries, they become a source of increased trade volume: so tht is not surprising to see Germans driving Hondas while Japanese drive BMWs.
SLICING UP THE VALUE CHAIN. In Dtroit’s Institute of Fine Arts there is a remarkable room whose walls are painted with four stunning murals by Diego Rivera. The Rivera murals, completed in 1933, show in considerable detail the operations of Ford’s River Rouge industrial complex—a giant facility that combined at a single site blast furnaces, rolling mills, engine casting, body stamping, and assembly of complete automobiles. The Rouge plant was, in effect, a facility that ingested coke and iron ore at one end and extruded passenger cars from the other.
Although Rivera’s murals were intented as a celebration of the power of modern industry (and also, to his patron’s dismay, condemnation of its brutality), they now have a decidedly archaic feel. Part of that senseof old-fashioned industry comes from the very degree of integration that seemed so impressive at the time. What are all those disparate operationsdoing in the same facility? Why are they not being done at specialized plants scattered around the globe?
It would be interesting to know how many facilities the average iron atomic in a 1995 Ford automobile has passed through (or better yet, to know how many miles it has travelled, from the time it enters the gate of the steel plant to the time it rolls off the assembly line). But it is generally believed (with little hard statistical evidence) that the trend in manufacturing has been to slice up the value chain—to produce a good in a number of stages in anumber of locations, adding a little bit of value at each stage.
Such slicing up could greatly increase the potential volume of international trade. In 1913, a given consumer good could, to a rough approximation, be exported only once. Today it can be exported many times: a good that is produced in one country may be assembled from components produced in other countries, and these in turn may beassembled from subcomponents produced in yet other countries. As a result, the trade involved in the global production of a final good may easily be several times the value added in all stages of that production.
This increased potential for trade may help explain the next new aspect of world trade: the emrgence of supertrading nations.
SUPERTRADING ECONOMIES. Global trade as a percentage of global output is, even now,only moderately higher than it was in 1913. the most trade-oriented economies, however, have much higher trade shares than ever seen before. As far as the available data indicate, there was no country in 1913 whose exports exceeded 50 percent of GDP. Today there are at least six such countries:
[---[
The emergence supertrading economies clearly depends on the ability of modern industry to slice up the value chain, so that the value of exports can be substantially larger than the value added in theexport industry. This is a fortiori true for Singapore and Hong Kong, where exports actually exceed GDP (alias, value added in the domestic economy). But it must also be true for all the other countries shown, since it is virtually certain that at least 60 percent of the employment and value added even in small countries is generated in nontradable sectors; thus a trade share of much more than 30-40 percent can only arise when exports involve adding a fairly small amount of value to imported intermediate goods.
Caru
Spanish translation:SEE EXPLANATION
Explanation:
Caru:
I don't wish to seem offensive, but---IS THIS A HISTORY LESSON OR WHAT???

It's entirely unclear what you need and if you actually want to have this whole text translated, then I suggest you search for a translator from among the ProZ lists.

Good Luck!
terry
Selected response from:

Terry Burgess
Mexico
Local time: 08:23
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement. KudoZ.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +4SEE EXPLANATION
Terry Burgess
4 +3Nuevos aspectos del comercio
David Meléndez Tormen
5 +1nuevos aspectos del comercio
Andrea Bullrich
5Las nuevas tendencias del intercambio comercial internacionalxxxAME
4 +1nuevos aspectos comercialesJH Trads
4nuevos aspectos comerciales
Paloma
4nueva baza comercial.Henri Barreiro Domingo


  

Answers


0 min   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
nuevos aspectos comerciales


Explanation:
espero ayude

JH Trads
United States
Local time: 08:23
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish, Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in pair: 2060

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Myrtha
3 days 1 hr
  -> gracias
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1 min   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
Nuevos aspectos del comercio


Explanation:
o

Nuevos aspectos del intercambio comercial


Suerte!

David Meléndez Tormen
Spain
Local time: 15:23
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in pair: 2019

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Andrea Bullrich: un amigo es un tesoro :-P
9 mins
  -> Eso debe pensar Caru, esperando que le terminemos de traducir el chorizo jaja

agree  Fernando Muela
10 mins

agree  xxxTransOl: pero bueno!! Caru vaya pasada que se metió aquí No??
3 hrs
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2 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
nuevos aspectos del comercio


Explanation:
O nuevos aspectos de la actividad comercial.
Hope this helps.


    own experience
Andrea Bullrich
Local time: 11:23
Native speaker of: Spanish
PRO pts in pair: 1650

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  David Meléndez Tormen: synchronicity! (well, almost... :- P )
1 min
  -> you cowboys have no manners : )
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4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +4
SEE EXPLANATION


Explanation:
Caru:
I don't wish to seem offensive, but---IS THIS A HISTORY LESSON OR WHAT???

It's entirely unclear what you need and if you actually want to have this whole text translated, then I suggest you search for a translator from among the ProZ lists.

Good Luck!
terry


    None
Terry Burgess
Mexico
Local time: 08:23
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 3315
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement. KudoZ.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Fernando Muela
7 mins
  -> Thx Fer:-)

agree  Karina Fabrizzi
1 hr

agree  xxxTransOl: Should not we all click on the not "enough context" link? I guess I need EVEN more
3 hrs

agree  Lafuente: I feel sleepy... wonder why ....
4 hrs
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5 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
Las nuevas tendencias del intercambio comercial internacional


Explanation:
There is not a clear approach to what you want to be done to this text.

I have only translated the title.

xxxAME
Local time: 09:23
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14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
nueva baza comercial.


Explanation:
metáforico pero histórico.

Henri Barreiro Domingo
Spain
Local time: 15:23
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench, Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in pair: 11
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17 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
nuevos aspectos comerciales


Explanation:
o de comercio, o de mercado
palo

Paloma
Spain
Local time: 15:23
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