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4.Despite Reforms, Russia Remained a Rigid Autocracy

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07:23 Sep 2, 2001
English to Thai translations [Non-PRO]
Tech/Engineering
English term or phrase: 4.Despite Reforms, Russia Remained a Rigid Autocracy
4.Despite Reforms, Russia Remained a Rigid Autocracy

BY THE MID-1800S RUSSIA HAD THE LARGEST TERRITORY AND POPULATION OF ANY EUROEAN NATION. YET IT REMAINED WEAK. INDUSTRAIL DEVELOPMENT, WHICH SO STRENGTHENED THE WEST, LAGGED IN RUSSIA. MOST OF THE COUNTRY’S EXTENSIVE NATURAL RESOURCES LAY UNDEVELOPED. PORTS BLOCKED BY ICE FOR MUCH OF THE YEAR, OR EXITS FROM THE SEAS CONTROLLED BY OTHERCOUNTRIES, MADE RUSSIA ALMOST ENTIRELY LANDLOCKED. THIS SITUATION LED TO CONTINUOUS RUSSIAN ATTEMPTS TO WIN ACCESS TO THE MEDITERRANEAN, PAST CON STANTINOPLE AND THE DARDANELLES. THESE EFFORTS LED TO CONFLICTS WITH THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, WHICH CONTROLLED THE DARDANELLES.
RUSSIA HAD ANOTHER PROBLEM. UNLIKE GREAT BRITAIN OR FRANCE, IT LACKED UNITY. THE HUGE RUSSIAN EMPIRE INCLUDED A GREAT VARIETY OF PEOPLES AND NATIONAL GROUPS. MOST PEOPLE IN THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA BELONGED TO ONE OF THREE RELATED GROUPS: (1) THE GREAT RUSSIANS, IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN RUSSIA, (2) THE UKRAINIANS, IN THE SOUTH, AND (3) THE WHITE RUSSIANS, IN THE WEST. MOST OF THEM BELONGED TO THE ORTHODOX CHURCH. SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE WERE SMALLER RACAIL, NATIONAL, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS SPEAKING A VARIETY OF LANGUAGES. MANY OF THESE GROUPS, SUCH AS THE POLOES AND FINNS, HAD BEEN CONQUERED BY THE RUSSIANS AND DISLIKEED RUSSIAN RULE.
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Summary of answers provided
5áÁé¨Ðä´éÃѺ¡Òû¯ÔÃٻ㹴éÒ¹µèÒ§æ ÃÑÊà«Õ¡çÂѧ¤§»¡¤Ãͧ»ÃÐà·È´éÇÂÃкºà¼´ç¨¡ÒÃẺàºç´àÊÃç¨
Patcharee Graham
44.
Ket Kay


  

Answers


10 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
4.


Explanation:
4. ¶Ö§áÁéÇèÒ¨ÐÁÕ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»ÁÒ¡ÁÒ ÃÑÊà«Õ¡çÂѧ¤§¶×ÍÃкºàÍ¡Ò¸Ô»äµÂÍÂèÒ§à¤Ã觤ÃÑ´

Ket Kay
Local time: 13:04
Native speaker of: Thai
PRO pts in pair: 20
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11 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
áÁé¨Ðä´éÃѺ¡Òû¯ÔÃٻ㹴éÒ¹µèÒ§æ ÃÑÊà«Õ¡çÂѧ¤§»¡¤Ãͧ»ÃÐà·È´éÇÂÃкºà¼´ç¨¡ÒÃẺàºç´àÊÃç¨


Explanation:
Autocracy may mean "ÍѵµÒ¸Ô»äµÂ" , "àÍ¡Ò¸Ô»äµÂ" or "Ãкºà¼´ç¨¡ÒÃ"

I think the last one is the easiest for the reader to understand what it actually means.


    English-Thai Dictionary, Wit Thiengburanathum Ph.D., LL.B.
Patcharee Graham
United Kingdom
Local time: 06:04
Native speaker of: Native in ThaiThai
PRO pts in pair: 8
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