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07:54 Nov 13, 2008
English to Turkish translations [PRO] Livestock / Animal Husbandry Additional field(s): Environment & Ecology
English term or phrase:grazing pressure
Definition from IFAD: The relationship between the number of animal units or forage intake units and the weight of forage dry matter per unit area at any point in time; an animal-to forage relationship. May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units to forage mass (animal units/forage mass at a specific time).
An optimum grazing pressure is one in which available forage matches animal needs; this is analogous to the quantity of forage offered daily to animals in confinement when rations are balanced. The Pennsylvania State University
The different grazing pressures were obtained through different stocking rates, adjusted every 21 d according to forage mass, predicted forage production rate, and an estimated forage allowance of 10, 15 and 20 kg dry matter (DM) heifer-1 d-1 for high, medium, and low pressures, respectively. American Society of Agronomy
Stocking rate and annual average grazing pressure (with or without account for feral animals) did not appear to be, in themselves, good indicators of sustainability. Rather, the sustainability of different areas/systems and the impacts on sustainability of changes in management, e.g. stocking rates, may be assessed better through calculating year-to-year variability of the feed base, and periods of critical grazing pressure. cababstractsplus.org
Definition from own experience or research: Zamanın herhangi bir noktasında, birim alana düşen hayvan birimlerinin veya yemlenen birimlerin sayısıyla yem kuru maddesi ağırlığı arasındaki ilişki
Pek çok yerde yoğun otlama baskısıyla büyük ölçüde değişmiş olmasına karşın kumul bitki örtüsü son derece zengin bir çeşitlilik gösterir. Alanda 1994 yılında gerçekleştirilen bir çalışmada saptanan bitki örtüsü tipleri arasında, Euphorbia peplis-Sabola ruthenica sahil, Ammophila arenaria-Eryngium maritimum-Otanthus maritiumus ön cephe kumul, Corispermum fllifolium-Cyperus capititatus-Digitartia sabulosa-Pancratium maritimum-Silene dichotoma erken san (ön cephe) kumul, Glycyrrhiza glabra ve Holoschoenus vulgaris sabit kumul meraları (bu bölümler ağır bir otlama baskısı altındadır), Artemisia aff. campestris-Teucrium chamaedrys-Terucrium polium-Tragus racemosus sabit kumul meraları sayılabilir. - WWF-Türkiye
Uzun yıllardır meraların aşırı otlatılması sonucu olarak meralar verimliliklerini kaybetmekle kalmamış aynı zamanda meraların kalitesi de düşmüştür. Botanik karışımda istenen bitkilerin oranı %10 ila %20 arasındadır. Bölgeye ve otlama baskısına bağlı olarak meralardaki bitki örtüsünün oranı %10 ile %50 arasındadır. - Tarım Bakanlığı
Cagdas Karatas Turkey Local time: 00:49 Native speaker of: Turkish PRO pts in category: 12
2 days2 hrs confidence:
Definition from UW Agricultural Research Stations;: But I’m a grazier…. Through discussions at pasture walks, winter meetings, and other grazing education events, it became apparent that many graziers believed that they did not need to apply nutrients since the manure is deposited right back in the paddocks they came from. A detailed sampling of 10 well-established managed intensive grazing farms in north-central Wisconsin revealed some relevant trends. For potassium, 58% of samples collected fell into the “low” fertility description. Potassium is important for maintaining legume species, optimizing yield, and improving drought tolerance. On a positive note, grazing farms tend to have desirable soil phosphorous levels. For soil samples tested from 2000 to 2004, the Wisconsin average for phosphorous was 53 parts per million (ppm). Excessive phosphorus can contribute to degraded surface water quality, and DATCP has established that fields above 50 ppm may require additional P level management. The 10 grazing farms surveyed had an average of 32 ppm with 90% of samples under 50 ppm. While commercial fertilizer may or may not be needed across an entire farm, there likely will be paddocks that are high in fertility and others that are low in fertility on the same farm. These low fertility paddocks tend to have less forage productivity. Soil sampling can help you identify and prioritize those paddocks that are in need of additional nutrients to optimize your pasture productivity.
GrassWorks, Inc. director Paul Nehring noted that
much of the grazing research has demonstrated that
managed grazing offers greater net profitability
compared to confinement dairy systems, but that the
grazing community should not rest. - IDEM
-------------------------------------------------- Note added at 276 days (2009-08-16 10:55:55 GMT) --------------------------------------------------
Zaman icinde herhangi bir birim alan basina dusen hayvan sayisi veya ot veya (yem) tuketen birimi ile kuru ot agirligi arasindaki baginti; bir hayvan basina dusen ot bagintisi demektir. birim hayvan veya yem tuketici basina dusen ot miktari olarak ifade edilebilir (belli bir suredeki birim hayvan / ot miktari)
-------------------------------------------------- Note added at 283 days (2009-08-23 23:07:21 GMT) --------------------------------------------------
OTLATMA ZORLAMASI veya OTLATMA SIKLIGI da denebilir.
Salih1946 United States Local time: 17:49 Native speaker of: Turkish PRO pts in category: 4
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