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Economic and Other Views on Consumption

Turkish translation: Sayın MUSTAFA'ya notlar

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12:26 Nov 18, 2001
English to Turkish translations [Non-PRO]
Marketing
English term or phrase: Economic and Other Views on Consumption
The scope of this volume must depend, in part, on how we define the subject with which we are grappling. What is the -- or a -- Consumer Society? Let us start with a smaller part of that question: what is consumption?

Economic and Other Views on Consumption

In the Introduction to this volume we said that we would restrict our exploration to the economic concept of "final" consumption, most often associated with households (as distinct from, for example, the consumption or use of materials by firms, or by governments). This accords with most economic theory and modeling, which is concerned with the consumption of goods and services that have been purchased from a "producer" and are then in some way used by the "consumer". The conventional view of consumption in economics presents it as a simple, individual, readily quantified process of satisfying well-defined needs. This section will consider some alternative views which have recently gained prominence, diverging from mainstream economic theory in two different directions. (Scope and Definition Neva R. Goodwin http://www.consumernet.org/demo/edu/edu1.shtml)



Consumerism is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary as the "theory that a progressively greater consumption of goods is economically beneficial." This theory is at the heart of the American economic system based on capitalism and free markets. The word forming the root for this theory, consume, means to "ingest, use up, to waste, squander, or to destroy totally." There is a feeling of tension that exists between these two definitions. This tension comes from expecting something beneficial to result from that which carries an idea of waste, squander, and destruction. This tension describes the unspoken aspect of consumerism. Grant McCracken looked at cultural changes and consumption patterns. He saw consumerism starting with Elizabeth I in the 16th-century and her policy changes and traced its dvelopment up to the 19th-century with changes in marketing, the introduction of the department store, and self-created lifestyles. McCracken concluded that cultural changes resulted in consuming patterns being changed, and conversely, changes in consuming patterns resulted in changes to culture. Robert Bocock was concerned with social movements, including Puritanism, the Reformation, and the Industrial Revolution. Bocock focused jointly on Simmel, because of his insights on the effects of city life, and Veblen, for his identification of conspicuous consumption. Bocock found that groups of people used consumption patterns as a way of distinguishing themselves from others. Daniel Horowitz provided a primarily American history of ideas about consumerism, concentrating on moralist ideas. Horowitz established that pre-industrial cultures stressed religious, ethical, and communal values and sought to restrain individualism and materialism. Willis Harman wrote specifically about the changing American attitudes toward business and work, especially in this century. Keith Bryant and Henry Dethloff concentrated on the positive aspects of capitalism, which they saw coming out of Calvinism. Erich Fromm looked at history with a focus on psychological issues. He highlighted changes over time to social character, citing influences and results. This chapter revealed the multitude of perspectives that relate to this subject. It began to show that the parts do not relate directly back to the whole in a uniform manner. The principal insight of this chapter may have been that there was to be no easy historical answer to the question, the question of the whole of consumerism and the individual. The specificthemes discussed were the following: advertising, passive or active participants, and the symbolic aspects of self, desire, and meaning. The two most relevant topics discussed, in terms of the question of consumerism and the individual, concerned the movement of meaning and the displacement of meaning. The first described a mechanism for how meaning might be transferred to onsumers from something they bought. The second looked at why this purchase might not bring the satisfaction promised, and why the symbolic meaning desired still existed elsewhere. McCracken explained how meaning, which originated in the culturally constituted world, could be transferred first to goods and services and then to consumers by means that utilize the symbolic form of meaning. He further suggested that meaning, as an ideal, may be displaced into another cultural universe with a resulting desire to regain this meaning possibly by purchasing goods. These two insights fit together to describe how a consumer would not necessarily be satisfied by a purchase that promised meaning, when that meaning actually resided elsewhere. This can be seen as the answer to why people consume at the level seen in this country; people are trying to regain a displaced meaning. George Brockway concluded that economics concerns the money relations of human beings to one another. It seems that Brockway is accurately reflecting the way people perceive their relationships. Relationships are currently perceived in the language of money: "Is he or she worth the trouble?" Or, "I have too much invested in this relationship to walk away." Alan Durning, citing Michael Argyle, noted that social relations, work, and leisure were more important than wealth in determining self-rated happiness. This finding is opposite of the way people seem to act. As Juliet Schor noted, workers have taken productivity increases in terms of salaries and wages instead of more vacations or shorter work weeks. Consumer Psychology, was one way to look at consumerism, but one that did not contribute to answering the question posed by this dissertation. I presented Erich Fromm as the central figure in the psychological investigations of consumerism and the individual. His major insight concerned the marketing orientation with its chief feature being that no specific or permanent kind of relatedness developed in this orientation. Other themes discussed in this chapter concerned the differences between drive and relational psychological models, and a comparison of the Hobbesian or constrained vision and the unconstrained vision as expressed by Rousseau. Also important was Philip Cushman's identification of the empty self as being characterized by a pervasive sense of personal emptiness that uses consumption as a means for filling-up, and where loneliness is embodied as emotional hunger. These ideas led into a discussion of the importance of relationships and the speculation that consumerism has led to a new form of relationship, termed the extropersonal relationship. The history of consumerism shows that there is a relationship between changes in culture and changes in consumption patterns. It shows further that these changes move away from communal values toward individualism and materialism. Social science shows that whether active or passive consumers are affected by the symbolic aspects of goods and services. The effects of this are seen or felt in relationship to desire or to need and the pursuit of meaning. Economics stresses the domination of money relations for people, in spite of the importance of social relations, work, and leisure. And psychology describes the manner in which a character structure can shape relatedness, or the lack thereof. My finding is that the increased level of consumption, which began in 16th-century England, has gradually led to a change in relationships. There has been a move away from both intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships to a new mode of relations. The direction of this move has been to the surface. The resulting mode of relating is best described as extropersonal. This term is meant to describe an outwardly personal relationship. This outward focus denotes a relatedness with the surface or exterior, as distinguished from the mind or spirit. Extropersonal relationships focus on things, or on people as things. This is a form of objectification where all relating is done at the literal level of the object--surface to surface, exterior to exterior. The extropersonal relationship is the prominent type of relationship today, and results from the pervasiveness of consumerism in our society. This extropersonal relationship is then a symptom of consumerism. It results from people looking in the wrong place and in the wrong way for relationships. They look on the outside and at the surfaces in between, instead of inside oneself and to one another. They look with the marketplace in mind instead of with the heart and soul. They desire relationships that work, in terms that the marketplace reflects and respects. These areaspects such as reliable, successful, and ambitious; these are all bankable characteristics. Much of this can be related to McCracken's idea of displaced meaning, with the extropersonal relationship being seen as a symptom of this phenomenon. As cultural meanings may be displaced and made to be out of reach, so personal meanings may be similarly displaced. The result of this personal displacement is seen in Cushman's empty self--a self that has lost its center, together with a loss of the other. This other may be seen in terms of interpersonal, intrapersonal, or spiritual relationships. (Consumerism and Relationships The Psychology of Extropersonal Relationships Homepage for Fritz M. Brunner, Ph.D. http://www.consumernet.org/demo/edu/edu5.shtml)

In industrialized countries, the costs of affluence are coming into focus. In 1989, the average American consumed twice as much as his or her counterpart in 1969, while the average worker labored 160 more hours -- equivalent to an extra month of full-time employment.[2] The expectation that productivity increases would eventually translate into a life of leisure for the masses has not been realized. As communities become more fragmented, status consumption has intensified rather than diminished. The fruits of economic growth -- more consumption, a growing strain on the natural environment, but no more happiness all around -- raise serious questions for our economic agenda. This section analyzes rising consumption levels in affluent societies during the twentieth century and their effect on both the public sector and the experience of consumers. (CONSUMPTION IN THE AFFLUENT OCIETY[1] by David Kiron http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/summaries/Frontiers/Consumer/csess... )

When did the consumer society begin, and why? Turn the clock back just a few centuries, and our ancestors, of whatever class and nation, displayed neither the attitudes toward consumption nor the behavior described in the previous sections of this book. But did they awaken gradually to the dawn of mass consumption, or were they roused abruptly in a "consumer revolution"? The questions about the history of consumer society are so broad that it is necessary to begin by delineating what will not be included in the discussion. A basic distinction must be drawn between the existence of occasional luxuries or goods consumed f or symbolic purposes on the one hand, and widespread, nonutilitarian consumption as a way of life on the other. Traces of luxury and symbolic consumption can be found throughout history; anthropological and archeological evidence suggests that such consu mption is even older, perhaps as old as human material culture itself.[1] In contrast, consumer society -- in which ever-growing consumption becomes the principal aspiration, source of identity, and leisure activity for more and more of the population -- is a much newer construct. Our question is not when consumption beyond subsistence first appeared, but when it took over. This distinction parallels the one made by Karl Polanyi between the quite ancient appearance of markets and the more recent domination of society by the marke t.[2} Since the rise of markets and of mass consumption are closely related, Polanyi's conclusion that the dominion of the market was finally established in England in the 1830s is potentially relevant to the history of consumerism. Surviving Perceptions of the Past Before the 1970s it was possible to complain that very little had been written about the history of consumption. The gap was filled, first by the massive works of (THE HISTORY OF CONSUMER SOCIETY by Frank Ackerman http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/summaries/Frontiers/Consumer/csess... )

Faith in the market is one of the most powerful forces in the world today. It has succeeded where Napoleon and Hitler failed, in conquering the vast expanse of Russia. In America it is fast sweeping away the remaining icons of an earlier faith in gover nment intervention and social welfare. The central doctrine of the new faith, the creed of the bourgeois jihad, emerges from neoclassical economics and its claims of the "optimality" of market outcomes. The optimality of the market rests squarely on the theory of consumer behavior. That theory in turn is built on a series of debatable assumptions, as suggested by the following catechism: Why is the market a good thing? Because it promotes freedom and efficiency. Freedom and efficiency for what? Freedom to satisfy consumer desires as efficiently as possible. What do consumers want? Individual, marketable goods and services for themselves and their families. How much do they want? More. Their desires are insatiable. Why should these desires be satisfied? Consumer desires exist prior to and external to the economy; there is no scientific basis for questioning their urgency or validity. Satisfaction of individual consumer desires is what happiness and human well-being consist of; the economy has no other goal. How can we tell if consumer desires are satisfied? Consumers are rational and well-informed. Give them the freedom to choose and they will always select the most satisfying available option. Accept all this on faith, and the rest follows. Indeed, the discipline of economics is amply supplied with consumer researchers who do accept the traditional theory, raising only the most narrowly technical questions and modifications.i Yet as seen in Section 5, economics also has a long, if often ignored, history of dissent from the dominant view of consumption. That history has continued up through the present. This section summarizes the work of nine authors writing from the 1960s through the pres ent, all seeking in different ways to reform the prevailing economic theory of consumer behavior. The later sections of this essay also address the leading mainstream innovation in consumer theory, Gary Becker's household production model. (ECONOMIC THEORY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR by Frank Ackerman http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/summaries/Frontiers/Consumer/csess... )

With the rise in consumption levels following World War II, social relations -- within the family, between genders, and among friends -- have undergone enormous changes. Similarly, the development of markets aimed exclusively at children's interests has dramatically influenced the socialization of youth. Increasing consumption traditionally is welcomed as a sign of progress, but many of the accompanying changes have raised concerns about their impact on family, gender, and children. This part analyzes these effects and the influences of cultural trends and institutional forces such as government, technology, and commercialization. The summaries that follow offer telling evidence that consumer culture disrupts family stability and communities, promotes consumption as a significant arena in which to cultivate personal identity, and undermines certain aspects of child development. The family, in some form, is a major socialization institution that assures the continuity and stability of any society. However, it is useful to distinguish between a society's ideal of the family and the diversity of actual family forms, which typically depart from the ideal. The nuclear family has been the prevailing normative ideal even though there has always been considerable departure from this ideal due to circumstances such as death, separation, or divorce. Since World War II, especially after the 1960s, divorce and separation have become much more common, as have never-married one-parent families. In recent years, even same-sex couple marriages and families have received legal recognition in some areas. However, a large majority of people have experienced a nuclear family form at some point in their lives. For purposes of our discussion, we will focus on the nuclear family ideal, but take into account the reality of a trend toward an increasing diversity in family forms. (FAMILY, GENDER,AND SOCIALIZATION by David Kiron and Seymore Bellin http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/summaries/Frontiers/Consumer/csess... )
mustafa
Turkish translation:Sayın MUSTAFA'ya notlar
Explanation:

Sayın Mustafa,
Öncelikle bu sayfalardaki arkadaşların açık kimliklerini belirtmelerinin daha saygın bir davranış olacağı kanısındayım. Açık kimliğinizi bilmediğim için size sadece Sayın Mustafa demek zorundayım.
Bu sayfaların sadece profesyonel yardımlaşma amacıyla kullanılması gerektiğini lütfen hatırlayınız. Ya da ilgili yerlerde bir iş ilanı verebilirsiniz de.

Sayın Kamil Kartal'ın görüşlerine aynen katılıyorum.

Başarılar dileğimle
Selected response from:

Ali Osman TEZCAN
Turkey
Local time: 15:04
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4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +2Sayın MUSTAFA'ya notlar
Ali Osman TEZCAN
5Bu metnin ucretli cevirisi icin tekliftir.xxxallingus
4Sayin Mustafa,bernuc
4Tüketim Üzerine Ekonomik Ve Sair Görüşlershule


  

Answers


52 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
Bu metnin ucretli cevirisi icin tekliftir.


Explanation:
Standart tarifemize gore bu metnin ceviri ucreti 252,690,000.-TL'dir.

Ongorulen calisma suresi 1 gundur.

Uygun gordugunuz takdirde, lutfen allingus@allingus.net adresine mesaj gonderiniz.

(Yukaridaki metni, profesyonel cevirmenlerden gonullu destek almak amaci ile Proz'a gondermediginizden eminim!)


    allingus
xxxallingus
Local time: 15:04
PRO pts in pair: 2
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Tüketim Üzerine Ekonomik Ve Sair Görüşler


Explanation:
In case you are not able to read Turkish characters:

"Tuketim uzerine ekonomik ve sair gorusler"


If you require a complete translation you had better contact directly with the translators or post a job and take bids.



shule
Local time: 15:04
Native speaker of: Turkish
PRO pts in pair: 111
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12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
Sayın MUSTAFA'ya notlar


Explanation:

Sayın Mustafa,
Öncelikle bu sayfalardaki arkadaşların açık kimliklerini belirtmelerinin daha saygın bir davranış olacağı kanısındayım. Açık kimliğinizi bilmediğim için size sadece Sayın Mustafa demek zorundayım.
Bu sayfaların sadece profesyonel yardımlaşma amacıyla kullanılması gerektiğini lütfen hatırlayınız. Ya da ilgili yerlerde bir iş ilanı verebilirsiniz de.

Sayın Kamil Kartal'ın görüşlerine aynen katılıyorum.

Başarılar dileğimle

Ali Osman TEZCAN
Turkey
Local time: 15:04
Native speaker of: Turkish
PRO pts in pair: 104
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement. KudoZ.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  rusen: dogru soze ne denir
10 hrs

agree  Selcuk Akyuz
368 days
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1 day 24 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Sayin Mustafa,


Explanation:
Metninizin cevirisi icin dewynight@yahoo.co.uk adresinden bana ulasabilirsiniz. Ceviri ucreti herbir sozcuk icin .14 Euro, calisma suresi 1 gundur.
Saygilarimla,
Berat Celik

bernuc
Germany
Local time: 13:04
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
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