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commoditisation

Turkish translation: sıradanlaşma

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:commoditisation
Turkish translation:sıradanlaşma
Entered by: Ayse White
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19:39 Jun 29, 2003
English to Turkish translations [PRO]
Bus/Financial - Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
English term or phrase: commoditisation
Addressing our customers’
needs creatively will enable us to combat
product commoditisation and extract more
revenue at better margins.
Ayse White
United States
Local time: 19:18
sıradanlaşma/aynılaşma
Explanation:
Bilkent Üniversitesi’nin kuruluşundan itibaren, çeşitli görevlerde yer almış olan ve Provost yardımcısı olan Prof. Güliz Ger, globalleşme sürecinde, yerel yatırımcının göz önünde bulundurması gereken bir takım noktalar olduğunu belirtiyor. Ger’in tezi global rekabet ortamında yerel bir firmanın ancak “kültürel kapital” ini kullanarak farklılığı ile tutunabileceği yönünde. Ancak, Ger’in “California Management Review” Dergisi’nde çıkan “Global Şehirde Yerelleşme” adlı makalesinde değinmeyi ihmal etmediği, yerel özellikle global pazara girmeye soyunan yatırımcıyı bekleyen üç de temel tehlike söz konusu: Hizmet sektörü devleri tarafından satın alınmak, gelip geçici bir modadan öteye gidememek, yaratılan malın sıradanlaşması. Bu tehlikelere karşı Ger’in yöneticiye bir takım önerileride...

www.bilkent.edu.tr/bilkent-tr/general/basin/bb-haber21.html


Selected response from:

Nilgün Bayram
Turkey
Local time: 02:18
Grading comment
Tesekkurler Nilbay. Gercekten de cevirisini yaptirdigim metinde bu anlama geliyor. Siradanlasma cok iyi uydu. Cevap veren diger arkadaslara da tesekkur ediyorum.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +1Temel ürün haline gelmesi
ATB Translation
5 +1MetalaştırmaAdil Sönmez
5sıradanlaşma/aynılaşma
Nilgün Bayram
4komoditasyon
Nilgün Bayram
2metalaş[tır]ma
Özden Arıkan


  

Answers


39 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Temel ürün haline gelmesi


Explanation:
Bildiğiniz gibi, commodities temel ürünler anlamına gelmektedir. Bu terim de ürünün temel ürün haline gelmesi anlamına geliyor. Eğer tercümede karşıma çıksaydı bu şekilde kullanırdım.

Saygılarımla,

ATB Translation
Turkey
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Emine Fougner
12 mins
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
komoditasyon


Explanation:
Nokia bu konuda Apple komputeri taklit ederek her sene piyasaya çok cazip ve kullanışlı cep telefonu modelleri sunuyor. Bu da Nokia'nın satışlarının artmasında büyük bir avantaj sağlıyor. Ayrıca ucuzdan pahalıya değişen modellerle pazarın her segmentine ayrı ayrı hitap etme stratejisi başarıyla uygulanıyor.
Bu arada piyasada "KOMODİTASYON - commoditization" belirtileri görülmeye başladı. Yani satışa arzedilen değişik markadaki cep telefonlarının birbirinden farkı kalmıyor. Bu ise marka üstünlüğüne bağlı olarak yüksek fiyat taleplerini baltalıyor. Geçtiğimiz 10 yıl zarfında cep telefonu fiyatları %15-20 düştüler.
Eğer Nokia satış fiyatlarını arttırmak isterse müşterilerine bugün olmayan daha cazip opsiyonlar sunmak mecburiyetinde. Bu yapıldığı taktirde hem müşteriler mevcut telefonlarını değiştirmek isteyecekler ve hem de yeni telefonlara daha fazla ücret ödemeye razı olacaklar.

www.metingoker.8m.com/nokia.htm

Nilgün Bayram
Turkey
Local time: 02:18
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
PRO pts in category: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Özden Arıkan: nilgün, açıklamasız disagree olmaz tabii ki, burada çok uzayacağı için kendi yerime yazıyorum :-)
17 mins

agree  shenay kharatekin
10 days
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
metalaş[tır]ma


Explanation:
Ekonomik bir terim olarak commodity'nin Türkçe karşığı = meta (çoğ. emtia); yani mal, yani alınıp satılan her şey.

Miriam-Webster'ın "commodity" tanımı şöyle: "1 : an economic good: as a : a product of agriculture or mining b : an article of commerce especially when delivered for shipment <commodities futures> c : a mass-produced unspecialized product <commodity chemicals> <commodity memory chips>
2 a : something useful or valued <that valuable commodity patience> b : CONVENIENCE, ADVANTAGE
3 obsolete : QUANTITY, LOT
4 : one that is subject to ready exchange or exploitation within a market <the sensitive female singer-songwriter as a viable pop commodity -- Elysa Gardner>"

İngilizce-Türkçe Perakendecilik Sözlüğü'nde: "Mal. Meta. Ticarette alınıp satılan her şey. (Çoğul olarak kullanıldığında tarım ürünleri gibi temel gıda maddeleri anlamındadır.)" (Perakendeciler Derneği yayını, Meral Tüzel)

Commoditisation ise nispeten yeni bir terim olsa gerek; ben sözlüklerde bulamadım; ama arama motorlarına bakarsan çok sayıda kullanım örneği var; hatta aşağıda adresini verdiğim sayfada Türkçe bir konuşma içinde aynen İngilizce haliyle kullanılmış.

Bence Türkçe'deki "metalaş[tır]ma" fiilini bu bağlamda kullanabilirsin. Metalaştırma biraz olumsuz çağrışımlar yapıyor gerçi: sanatın metalaştırılması, kadın bedeninin metalaştırılması, emeğin metalaştırılması vb. Ama verdiğin metinde de, "enable us to combat product commoditisation" dendiğine göre zaten yine olumsuz/pek de istenmeyen bir şeyden söz edilmekte.
Kolay gelsin.

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Note added at 2003-06-29 21:42:11 (GMT)
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Bu arada, confidence level\'ım, \"I am sure\"un bir derece altı olacak; ters uçtan işaretlemişim :-)))

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Note added at 2003-06-29 21:51:31 (GMT)
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komoditasyon ile ilgili olarak: böyle tek bir hit var (bu başka türkçe kaynaklarda kullanılmadığı anlamına gelmez elbette), onda da \"commoditisation\"ı türkçeye olduğu gibi uyarlamak istemişler ve yanlış uyarlamışlar; yani \"commodit*is*ation\"ın *is* veya *iz* kısmı unutulmuş ve olmuş \"komoditasyon\". türkçeye böyle yanlış aktarılmış pek çok yabancı kelime var tabii ve çok da yerleşmişi oldukları için kullanmaya devam ediyoruz: travesti, romantizm falan gibi mesela. ama bu eğer oturmuş bir kelime değilse (ki öyle görünüyor) yanlış oturmasına vesile olmamakta fayda var derim. yani bu durumda \"komoditizasyon\" olabilir ama \"komoditasyon\" olmamalı bence.

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Note added at 2003-06-29 21:54:33 (GMT)
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komoditasyon ile ilgili olarak: böyle tek bir hit var (bu başka türkçe kaynaklarda kullanılmadığı anlamına gelmez elbette), onda da \"commoditisation\"ı türkçeye olduğu gibi uyarlamak istemişler ve yanlış uyarlamışlar; yani \"commodit*is*ation\"ın *is* veya *iz* kısmı unutulmuş ve olmuş \"komoditasyon\". türkçeye böyle yanlış aktarılmış pek çok yabancı kelime var tabii ve çok da yerleşmişi oldukları için kullanmaya devam ediyoruz: travesti, romantizm falan gibi mesela. ama bu eğer oturmuş bir kelime değilse (ki öyle görünüyor) yanlış oturmasına vesile olmamakta fayda var derim. yani bu durumda \"komoditizasyon\" olabilir ama \"komoditasyon\" olmamalı bence.

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Note added at 2003-06-29 21:57:22 (GMT)
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komoditasyon ile ilgili olarak: böyle tek bir hit var (bu başka türkçe kaynaklarda kullanılmadığı anlamına gelmez elbette), onda da \"commoditisation\"ı türkçeye olduğu gibi uyarlamak istemişler ve yanlış uyarlamışlar; yani \"commodit*is*ation\"ın *is* veya *iz* kısmı unutulmuş ve olmuş \"komoditasyon\". türkçeye böyle yanlış aktarılmış pek çok yabancı kelime var tabii ve çok da yerleşmişi oldukları için kullanmaya devam ediyoruz: travesti, romantizm falan gibi mesela. ama bu eğer oturmuş bir kelime değilse (ki öyle görünüyor) yanlış oturmasına vesile olmamakta fayda var derim. yani bu durumda \"komoditizasyon\" olabilir ama \"komoditasyon\" olmamalı bence.


    www.ripe.net/ripe/meetings/archive/ripe-39/ presentations/commodisation
    Reference: http://www.tekadres.com/tekadres/content/mm4_sm2_12.htm
Özden Arıkan
Germany
Local time: 01:18
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
PRO pts in category: 16
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
sıradanlaşma/aynılaşma


Explanation:
Bilkent Üniversitesi’nin kuruluşundan itibaren, çeşitli görevlerde yer almış olan ve Provost yardımcısı olan Prof. Güliz Ger, globalleşme sürecinde, yerel yatırımcının göz önünde bulundurması gereken bir takım noktalar olduğunu belirtiyor. Ger’in tezi global rekabet ortamında yerel bir firmanın ancak “kültürel kapital” ini kullanarak farklılığı ile tutunabileceği yönünde. Ancak, Ger’in “California Management Review” Dergisi’nde çıkan “Global Şehirde Yerelleşme” adlı makalesinde değinmeyi ihmal etmediği, yerel özellikle global pazara girmeye soyunan yatırımcıyı bekleyen üç de temel tehlike söz konusu: Hizmet sektörü devleri tarafından satın alınmak, gelip geçici bir modadan öteye gidememek, yaratılan malın sıradanlaşması. Bu tehlikelere karşı Ger’in yöneticiye bir takım önerileride...

www.bilkent.edu.tr/bilkent-tr/general/basin/bb-haber21.html




Nilgün Bayram
Turkey
Local time: 02:18
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
PRO pts in category: 16
Grading comment
Tesekkurler Nilbay. Gercekten de cevirisini yaptirdigim metinde bu anlama geliyor. Siradanlasma cok iyi uydu. Cevap veren diger arkadaslara da tesekkur ediyorum.
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12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Metalaştırma


Explanation:
“commodise”, yüksek öğrenim, tıp, insan emeği vs de dahil ve şüphe, korku, üzüntü ve tüm insan kaderi hariç olmak üzere tüm varlıkların metalaştırılması oulup, Sayın Xola yorumuna katılıyorum.
A – Yapılan Tek Cevaplar
1) Sıradaşlaşma (kaynak: www.bilkent.edu.tr/bilkent-tr/general/basin/bb-haber21.html...

Sadece “yaratılan malın sıradanlaşması” terimi bulundu ki, “commoditisation” terimini karşıladığı kanıtlanamadığından,bu terim doğru değildir.

2) (Kaynak: www.metingoker.8m.com/nokia.htm)

Koru veya sözcük ile ilgili hiçbir şey bulunamadı.

3) commoditisation (Kaynak: http://www.tekadres.com/tekadres/content/mm4_sm2_12.htm)

Devletlerle, hem yatırım hem de ekonomik kaynaklar bakımından büyük şirketlerden söz ediyorum. Bu şirketlerle karşılaşınca üç temel tehlike söz konusu. Uluslararası bir şirket tarafından satın alınmak, yani siz dünyanın farklı şehirlerinde bir “Hamam” zinciri kuruyorsunuz, karşınızda Mariott ya da Sheraton dikiliyor. İkincisi, yaratılan ürünün gelir geçer olma tehlikesi, Tibet halılarına karşı gelişen moda gibi. Üçüncüsü ise, sıradanlaşma. Bu tehlikelerle karşı karşıyayken, yöneticinin son derece açık görüşlü olması gerekli. Yaratıcı olmak da bir diğer önemli koşul. Beceri, kalıcılık ve imaj yönetimi konusunda söz sahibi olmak çok önemli. Ya da en azından yöneticinin bu konulardan anlayan profesyonellerden. Bir ekip oluşturması şart. Uluslararası devlerle mücadeleye gelince, çeşitli şirketlerle ortaklıklar kurmalı, sivil toplum kuruluşları dahil, uluslararası platformda pek çok bağlantısı olmalı. Bağlantılar uluslararası şirketlerle rekabette hayati önem taşır. Ve yaratılan ürünün, hizmetin kalitesinin devamı için gerekli gelişimi garanti etmesi gerekli. Hamam örneğini verdiğimiz için, yurtdışında bu tip bir işe girişen yatırımcının, hamam düşüncesi ile bağdaşan fikirlerden, burada vücut ürünlerinden tutun da mimari değerlere kadar pek çok şey söz konusu, değer vermesi ve ayrıntıları da değerlendirebiliyor olması gerekli.

Bence bilişim sektörü hızlı gelişimini devam ettirecek ve commoditisation devam edecek. Önümüzdeki yıllarda zaten oluşmakta olan donanım, işletim sistemi, hatta veri tabanı ve temel uygulamalar da commoditise olup, yani farklılaştıcı faktör olmaktan tamamen çıkıp, artık toplam iş yöntemlerini değiştirebilecek, şirketlerin işleyişini, amaç ve şekillerini değiştirebilecek. Bu arada müşterilerine vizyon katabilecek şirketler ve çözümlere ihtiyaç duyulacaktır.

“Commoditise”, Türkçe diişye kullanılması yanlıştır.

4) Commotitisation (Kaynak: www.ripe.net/ripe/meetings/archive/ripe-39/ presentations/commodisation)

“Commodity” sözcüğünün tanımı var. “Commoditisition” sözcüğü geçiyorsa da tanımını bulamadım.

B - Açıklamalar:

Kaynak: http://www.mis.strath.ac.uk/principal/Education 27.06.02.doc

Whilst we have had some respite from the ludicrous efficiency gains of recent years, driven by a Treasury dogma derived more from the world of bulk manufacture than quality product definition, and in which the delivery of education was treated rather like the production of polyethylene, we continue to struggle against the pernicious effects of commoditisation, in which the reduction of unit costs become the dominant driver. This process inevitably also drives a homogenisation of education, grinding down the distinctive and levelling out those areas of high quality to which all of us aspire. In addition, this year, we have had to cope with a sudden switch in numbers of ITE students the university is being asked to take, as well as the uncertainties (now resolved) about whether SEED could find the guaranteed probationer places. But, with all these uncertainties, the prospects for our teacher graduates are still brighter than they have been for a generation. But there are other promising dimensions as well: with 50% of the existing generation of schoolteachers due to retire in the next ten years, the current and upcoming cohorts of graduate teachers are the new face of Scottish teaching. The University has also a deep involvement in the commitment to Continuing Professional Development made in the McCrone settlement - through its work with probationer teachers and in the development of a programme to take experienced teachers to Chartered Teacher status

Kaynak: http://www.isky.co.uk/case_whybother.html
The definition of customer management is widely debated but one thing most will agree on is that it is critical to long-term business success. With globalisation, commoditisation and the rise of the Internet, the balance of power has shifted from the company to the consumer. We have moved from a seller-driven economy to one that is buyer-driven, and organisations must revise their business models to reflect this shift. This is very apparent in mortgage provision. Never before has defection been so easy, with providers offering hassle-free transfers and seductive terms for the new recruit.
Kaynak: http://www.isky.co.uk/case_anotherway.htmlIts definition is hugely contentious but one thing most agree on is that customer management is critical to long-term business success. Against a backdrop of uncertainty, reduced margins, commoditisation and channel proliferation, the balance of power has shifted from the company to the consumer and the business model must change accordingly.
Kaynak: http://www.horton-intl.co.uk/pages/specialty_practices/retai...
Retail Financial Services is experiencing a re-definition of long held fundamentals driven by advances in technology. Without a deliverable, the industry has witnessed the commoditisation of its service offerings. At the same time, barriers to entry have been removed, allowing start-ups to offer significant challenges to long established institutions.
Kaynak: http://www.winchesterwhite.co.uk/newsite/services/strategy.h...
Winchester White has experience in the following:
· business case development (e.g. company launch, use of TPA and outsourcing)
· business requirements definition
· how to build an integrated distribution model
· customer-centric marketing strategy
· developing profitable brand strategy
· resisting commoditisation
· building unique customer value propositions
Kaynak: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/socs/lumss/nephridium/essay-pool/essa...

title: Can everything be commodified mark: 49% date of submission: 13/12/99 wordcount: 2000 author: anon. department: Sociology course: Rationalisation marked by: anon.

Introduction.

In this essay I will explore the concepts of commodification in an individual way, which, if I had the faculties needed, could be called polemic. However, it is but a disguise of my limited knowledge on the subject. Albeit, it is an approach which I presumably would have taken even if I did possess an ocean of knowledge.

To get back to the excuse for the style in this essay: It is not only caused by ignorance, but also by the fact that I, in general, find a lot of academic writing inaccessible and convoluted. I do not offer an alternative that is better, but I attempt to perhaps develop one by practicing.

I will present various examples of commodification and attempt to show that the process of commoditisation is not a product of capitalism. Capitalism is rather a product of the exchange technology, to which commodities are prerequisite.

The essay is mainly a critique of the increasing and expanding surrender to market mechanisms. Exchange may be intrinsic to human beings, but is capitalistic exploitation of this nature inevitable?

Should the contents of this essay not fit into the framework used for assessing essays, I am ready to compromise on the mark given, in order to experiment with my own writing.

Can everything be commodified?


Yes! Commoditisation is present in all societies whether anthropologists turn to pre-monetized or Marxian critics turn to “communist” societies. The non-monetized tribal life revolves around an exchange sphere (Appadurai, 1986) where the structure of the community is defined by the three spheres within which any individual are able to partake in the exchange of commodities. These spheres bring to mind the class system in which we live today, and, it seems, always have. The human mind, in its frailty of a so-called conscious existence, tends to look for support in definitive entities to cope with life: we put labels on matter, thereby splitting it up and escaping a frightening infinity. With the same aim, to make sense of the world we seek friends and likeminded to associate with(1).

This is where I see the resemblance to the exchange system of African tribes described by Kopytoff. This system divides not only the items of exchange into categories, but also the people who have the status associated with each category. Maybe we do not only need to make sense of the surrounding world to get a hold of existence, but also seek a notion of belonging to a certain sphere, which is not possible in the absence of counterparts.

In the totalitarian societies in Marxist guise, despite, or maybe as the very symptom of, strongly imposed politically controlling mechanisms the black market is well and alive. (compare: Kopytoff in: Appadurai 1988)

The driving force behind commoditisation is way beyond Marxism, capitalism and industrialisation, maybe beyond human control and definition, as such. Albeit the linear/progressive phases of evolutionary theory do not apply to commoditisation, (since commodities can become de-commoditised) it does exhibit similarities to Darwinian thought. If exchange is imperative in any culture, it is arguably a “natural order”.

Even the oldest morally troubling aspect of commodification, slavery, is subject to such shifts as “forth and back” in the commodity universe. The biographies of slaves, and commodities in general, as shown in the subsequent paragraph, exhibit proof hereof, in the sense that a slave is not necessarily predestined to remain a commodity, though, to a certain degree a slave always maintains the potential to become de-decommoditised. A slave, when purchased by the master is equipped with a whole new identity, a new chapter in a tumultuous biography. And slaves have, in the past, gone on to successful careers as warriors and the likes(2). Maybe I should mention here that slavery, despite all the moral concerns, which are confined to European thought, is thriving on most other continents (Bales, 1999). And we are talking of slavery that would make most medieval slave masters look like angels. The modern slaves in the third world are victims of modern economy and are disposed of in a manner resembling our treatment of toilet paper(3).

So, back to the concept of phases in the biographies of commodities: Most commodities go through successive stages in their “life” on the way to their terminus. Funnily enough, if they overcome their life as a trade-able item, they might reach the “nirvana” for commodities, and become sacral(ised) in the form of antiques or other inexplicable concepts of human tendency to acquire collectibles. In a post-post modern(4) society the terminal state of commodities has even revealed itself as a “something that can be contemplated” at the point of production. Hence, we find advertisements about completely new products that recommend immediate purchase, i.e. before they reach the premeditated state of a collectible(5).

Another area of commoditisation might be the care sector, as pointed out in the Human Development Report 1999, Chapter 2 (HDR 1999), the privatisation of care labour even threatens the welfare of humanity at large. The threat is caused by the application of profitability to the care of human beings in a very shortsighted way. The HDR points out that only miscalculations can lead to the conclusion that downsizing and underpayment in the care sector can provide economic gain. It has far reaching consequences and is at the very core of our (lack of a) future.


The commodification of human life itself has reached its puberty(6) and what this delinquent is up to we can hardly foresee. But as Lee M. Silver (1997) writes in his thought provoking book: the IVF techniques were received in much the same way as cloning, i.e. with a lot of protests from intellectuals and a very short-lived uproar from the people, but is today considered just another commodity. Regarding artificial reproduction techniques history has shown that market mechanisms are stronger than any moral concerns.

That some items in our surroundings should be sacred and stay sacred is an illusion to the same degree as the Marxist utopian society. In Holland the commodification of churches did not shock too many people, and a pub in a former church is nothing out of the ordinary.(7)



Industrialisation did not cause commodification, but made it explode, and in conjunction with it the communication tools and techniques exploded, and today we have the internet that leaves no corner of the earth unaffected by the superimposition of the capitalistic globalisation. Again there are no limits to what can be exploited for profits and this can be seen in the example I have chosen to put on the title page. (There is an elaboration on the matter in appendix A.)

But the Internet has also given birth to a whole new and interesting concept, which has a range of forms and names. These are difficult to approach without the use of jargon, but I will attempt to outline a few:
Open source is a concept of a commodity, software, which is no longer terminal, since it offers the possibility to view and modify the source, thereby, in effect, transforming the product.

The Internet might not necessarily prove the immaculate tool for commodification. It potentially provides the spade needed to undermine the controlling Big Brother surveillance society. These undercurrents are as yet sub –cultural, anarchic(8) movements.

The creator of the world-wide-web initially refused to let the www itself become a commodity and rejected all offers to profit from intellectual proprietary rights. He now works as the director of a consortium aiming for a future with no ownership of the www (Berners-Lee, 1999).

The commodification of knowledge is an interesting aspect, which is also related to the internet. The accessibility of vast reserves of information, can potentially lead to knowledge and enlightenment, though it certainly does not have to.
(W. Blake: “The Road of Excess leads to the Palace of Wisdom”, and it is possible to obtain excessively large amounts of information in very short time.)
In academia it can give rise to concerns about the legitimacy, honesty and genuinity of ideas and theories. ‘I am concerned with the rapidity with which ideas are superseded’ (Mohan, 1994): and the same notion disturbs my conception of Universities. That the commodification of knowledge within each academic school exists should need no further clarification. In this context it can come across as slightly worrying that this process seems to apply to the whole of the institutions as well.
Universities, run by grey middle aged men in boring suits, are subjects to the process of rationalisation, i.e. the closing down of departments which are either unsuitable for the image or simply unprofitable. I would, in my naivety of idealism, consider Universities at the very heart of the potential to counter-affect any symptoms, which are found to be undesirable, of any contemporary society. Nevertheless, we find that, despite their empirical evidence that rationalisation and globalisation destroys(9) the local culture and moral framework, they are happily contributing to the process of mono-culturalisation. Hypocrisy is alive and well.

The marriage of educational institutions and IT-companies indicate a future where one does not attend a sociology course within the University of Lancaster, but rather the minor sociology department within the Microsoft Development Centre of the North West. The 300.000£ donated by Microsoft to the Computer Department is of course peanuts compared to the £22 millions given to a science park in Cambridge and the £45 million headquarter of Microsoft Europe, also in Cambridge, bear witness to the assumption that they will be able to drain the Universities for manpower. In an industry where there is lack of qualified labour it is not difficult to imagine where the teenagers with the faculties requested will end up. Especially when their choice is between a massive debt from 3-4 years in University or a well-paid job in a fancy new science laboratory.

Conclusion.

Perhaps I overstated in the beginning that everything can be commodified, but it certainly is close, and with The Human Genome Research Institute attempting to reproduce life itself, it can seem naïve to expect Berners-Lee to be able to maintain the anarchy of the web.

Even though it can be argued that mortality, doubt, fear, despair (and the whole human lot) cannot be commodified, a vast array of things that have a profound impact on our society can.

1 Hierarchies, as a by-product of this grouping, funnily enough, are characteristic for all primates.
2 To call a warrior a success is of course a very narrow egocentric perspective - his perspective, since it seems that, no matter what Bill Clinton & Co. claim about the last attempt to save the world, war is never for the benefit of humanity. At least not for the casualties and their families.
3 Absolutely frightening accounts of slavery in Brazil and Mumbai etc!!
4 Postmodernism seems so outdated.
5 Conceived of by marketing and business students drawing upon psychology and other sciences to exploit their “fellow” kind.
6 Somewhat difficult to grasp is the fact that In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) techniques saw the light of night in a Cambridge laboratory more than 20 years ago. See also www.ornl.gov/hgmis - The Human Genome Research Project.
7 Is that also the case in England I wonder?? Is there such a thing in Lancaster, even??
8 Even though, I would be surprised if, in the time to come, they would not organise themselves in much the same way as capitalists.
9 …and ‘destroy’, in my interpretation, has a negative connotation.

Commodify: (Kaynak: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/jan-june02/cloning_bro...

And then the third issue is one that the environmental community raises, and it's a deep, ethical -- all of these are deep, ethical issues. It is a particularly deep ethical issue about-- are we going to commodify the human species? Are we going to allow you to patent portions of being a human? Are we going to have you collecting women's eggs for pay for a commodity base price? Are we going to commodify humans? And I think that's something we really should take up, and all of these are factors as to why we should deal with this now. Before the science and technology move on forward, I think the public should speak.

Commodify: (Kaynak: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/georgia/isolat...
In this vacuum of information, both boys and girls have come to commodify girls' sexuality and their own sexual experience; it is yet another thing to get, to have
Commodify: (Kaynak: http://www.pbs.org/30secondcandidate/text/q_and_a/greenfield...
GREENFIELD: I think in some sense, all communication, political communication, media communication, regular advertising reflects something of the times of the zeitgeist. It's not an accident that in the late sixties, every advertisement tried to appeal to young people using peace symbols, "Freedom Now"--that whole attempt to commodify dissent to coin a phrase. Not only the message, but the style of commercials reflects the time.
C- SONUÇ
1) “commoditise olup, yani farklılaştıcı faktör olmaktan tamamen çıkıp, artık toplam iş yöntemlerini değiştirebilecek, şirketlerin işleyişini, amaç ve şekillerini değiştirebilecektir” ibaresinden de anlaşılacağı gibi;
commoditise, farklılaştıcı faktör değildir.
2) Açıklamalar bölümünde geçen ibarelerden anlaşılacağı gibi;
“commodise”, yüksek öğrenim, tıp, insan emeği vs dahil ve şüphe, korku, üzüntü ve tüm insan kaderi olmak üzere varlıkların metalaştırılmasıdır


Adil Sönmez
Local time: 02:18

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Changes made by editors
Apr 17, 2005 - Changes made by Özden Arıkan:
Field (specific)(none) » Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.


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