dégager

English translation: [method ...] elaborated by [...]

14:59 Jun 19, 2020
French to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law: Patents, Trademarks, Copyright
French term or phrase: dégager
Intellectual property dispute, Cour de cassation. Comparison of trademark for which registration is sought with existing one.

"Si, pendant longtemps la Cour de cassation a abandonné l'appréciation du risque de confusion au pouvoir souverain des juges du fond ... elle en encadre aujourd'hui l'exercice en exigeant, à la suite de la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne ..., que les juges du fond examinent le risque de confusion « au terme d'une appréciation globale fondée sur l'impression d'ensemble produite par les marques », laquelle doit tenir compte à la fois de la ressemblance entre les signes et du degré de similitude des produits ...

Cette méthode d'appréciation globale dégagée par la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne implique une comparaison simultanée et synthétique des signes en conflit et des produits ou services qu'ils désignent."

From the context I imagine something like "laid down" might suffice. But maybe it's not that imperative: "arrived at"? Or maybe someone knows an accepted Euro-legal-buzzword for this ... ?
Mpoma
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
English translation:[method ...] elaborated by [...]
Explanation:

une méthode d'appréciation globale dégagée par la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne
=>
this Court has examined the question in general (not in just one case) and has created / made its own "global method" for evaluating if there is or not a "risk of confusion" between marks.

The point of "dégager" is in the process of examining a question and "distilling" a solution / arriving to an adopted position, the extent of (or even the total absence of!) powers of enforcement makes no difference whatsoever - it's out of the scope of the term.
Selected response from:

Daryo
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
Grading comment
Thanks
3 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
3 +4determined by
liz askew
3 +3identify
ph-b
4 +1[method ...] elaborated by [...]
Daryo
4to bring out/distill; to reach
Eliza Hall
4 -1tested
Francois Boye
3deployed/used/implemented by the Court
AllegroTrans
3 -1prescribed by
SafeTex
3 -3to release from responsibility
Lisa Rosengard


Discussion entries: 8





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +4
determined by


Explanation:
..

liz askew
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  ph-b
2 hrs

agree  Eliza Hall: That works too.
2 hrs

agree  GILOU
15 hrs

agree  James A. Walsh
20 hrs
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): -1
prescribed by


Explanation:
Lots of possibilities here but I'd go for this as laws prescribe things (provisions) so why not a court in this case.


    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/prescribe
SafeTex
France
Local time: 17:05
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Eliza Hall: Courts can prescribe things but the ECJ can't tell the French court what to do under French trademark law. The French court is referencing the ECJ as an example of good reasoning, not as something that they're required to follow.//See discussion
54 mins
  -> If you read their site and powers, you will see that they have enforcing powers , powers to ensure that decisions are followed and powers to sanction. What you added is complete cobblers. Any Brexiter would tell you that the EU court does have REAL power

neutral  AllegroTrans: The text is about an assessment method, not a law, so nothing is being prescribed
4 hrs
  -> It's a trademark dispute in the Cour de Cassation. They are looking at the EU Court of Justice's method cos they have to take it into account. The text is not about the assessment method itself but how it should be applied (its application)

disagree  Daryo: that's not the meaning of "dégagée" in this sentence - the extent of the powers of that Court (purely advisory or dictatorial powers "de droit divin" or anything in between) is purely a side show - wouldn't matter / change anything to the meaning.
6 hrs
  -> As I said to Eliza, The Court of Justice has sanctioning and enforcing powers. Their "method" of deciding a point has to be adopted by other National Courts. Maybe "prescribed" is too strong, but all attempts lile "elaborated" are too weak.
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4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +3
identify


Explanation:

From European sources (referring to your "Euro-legal-buzzword" in the discussion):

nous pourrions ainsi (...) dégager les grandes tendances;
>
" it would then be possible to (...) identify trends"
Both versions here: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/FR/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52...

analyser et évaluer les tendances de l'emploi en vue de dégager des options politiques ;
>
"analysis and evaluation of employment trends for the identification of policy options"
Both versions here: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/FR/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM...


aider la Commission à évaluer l’évolution des politiques en matière de lutte contre la corruption (...) ainsi qu'à dégager les tendances dans l'UE en matière de corruption;

>
"to help the Commission assess the evolution of anti-corruption policies (...) and to assist the Commission in identifying EU trends in corruption;"
Both versions here: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/FR/ALL/?uri=celex:32...

I've no idea whether "identify a methodology" is good English, but I found 1,820,000 ghits for it. I'll let you check how reliable and relevant each of them is!




ph-b
France
Local time: 17:05
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Eliza Hall: That's a good solution. It retains the sense of "determined from their analysis" that you get from dégagé.
3 hrs

agree  James A. Walsh: "identified by" works for me too.
17 hrs

agree  Cyril Tollari
3 days 2 hrs
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7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
dégageé par Cour
deployed/used/implemented by the Court


Explanation:
I read this as simnply explaining the method used by the Court

AllegroTrans
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 27

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Daryo: yes and no, as the key point is: the Court is to one that made / created this "global method for ...", it's not some already existing method that they just apply // that's the whole point of using "méthode dégagée par..." instead of "employée par"
2 hrs
  -> the fact is, the Court uses the method
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
to bring out/distill; to reach


Explanation:
They're saying that the ECJ examined trademark law and determined, from that analysis, that the proper method for evaluating the risk of confusion between two trademarks is XYZ (the method described in the first paragraph: "une appréciation globale fondée sur l'impression d'ensemble produite par les marques...").

That succinctly described (one sentence) conclusion as to the proper evaluation method was "dégagé" from the much larger mass of facts and rationales that the ECJ examined. The closest translation would be "brought out" or "distilled," but colloquially in English we would be more likely to just say the ECJ "reached" that conclusion.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2020-06-19 22:34:30 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

PS: globale does not modify méthode in the FR original ("Cette méthode d'appréciation globale..."). It modifies appréciation. So the translation I'm suggesting here is, "This overall appreciation approach that the European Court of Justice reached/brought out implies a simultaneous and holistic comparison..."

It would be more colloquial, even in legal texts, to just say "used." And that's fine too, although it loses the nuance of "dégagé."

Re what modifies what, the likelihood of confusion analysis in US trademark law is very similar: "We turn next to the question of likelihood of confusion. . . . The similarity of the marks is a key factor in determining likelihood of confusion. To apply this factor, courts must analyze the mark’s overall impression..." https://www.likelihoodofconfusion.com/side-side-comparison-d...

Eliza Hall
United States
Local time: 12:05
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  SafeTex: "bring out" makes the method sounds like they are marketing it, "distill" is wrong here as it means "reduce to its essence" and you don't "reach a method" (invent, set out, recommend etc.)
14 mins

disagree  AllegroTrans: "..overall method of asessment brought out/distilled/reached by the ECJ"; none of these make sense
3 hrs
  -> Globale doesn't modify méthode; it modifies appréciation. I just added to my answer to explain that.

agree  Daryo: "distilled" is close to the right idea // elaborated?
5 hrs
  -> Yes, "elaborated" could work too. The basic idea is that they considered a problem (how to analyze likelihood of confusion in trademarks) and came up with an approach for doing so.
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9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
[méthode de ...] dégagée par [la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne]
[method ...] elaborated by [...]


Explanation:

une méthode d'appréciation globale dégagée par la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne
=>
this Court has examined the question in general (not in just one case) and has created / made its own "global method" for evaluating if there is or not a "risk of confusion" between marks.

The point of "dégager" is in the process of examining a question and "distilling" a solution / arriving to an adopted position, the extent of (or even the total absence of!) powers of enforcement makes no difference whatsoever - it's out of the scope of the term.


Daryo
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
Native speaker of: Native in SerbianSerbian, Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 31
Grading comment
Thanks

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  SafeTex: The court can sanction and enforce. Maybe "prescribe" is too strong in this case, but "elaborate" misses the point that national courts and legislation does have to align with their "opinion" on a matter.
6 hrs
  -> you are getting sidetracked: EXACTLY the same logic would apply if it was about a totally powerless purely consultative body that was given a matter to debate and would manage to "dégager une position commune sur le sujet"

agree  Eliza Hall: This works too. Although in this case, it's not the method that's globale (see discussion).
12 hrs
  -> It's not part of the question, but both would make sense - it's "a generally applicable method" and each time the risk is examined / assessed as an "overall risk" //Thanks!
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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
dégagee
tested


Explanation:
According to the below considerations from 'Le Dictionnaire Juridique', the said interpretation method has been used to determine the meaning of the legal documents (contracts, conventions, etc...) opposing two parties over and over, which is why my translation refers to the concept of testing.


Lorsqu'elle porte sur une convention à propos de l'exécution de laquelle les parties sont en conflit, l'interprétation en est confiée à un Tribunal, ou, à un arbitre. Pour DEGAGER quel est le sens de la disposition du contrat qui constitue l'objet du différend, le juge cherche quelle a été leur commune intention. L'interprétation des termes d'une convention appartient souverainement aux juges du fond : en revanche la qualification des conventions, c'est à dire, la définition des effets de droit qu'elles produisent, est une question susceptible de faire l'objet d'un pourvoi en cassation. A l'occasion d'un litige sur les modalités de l'exécution d'un contrat, dans une situation juridique donnée, l'interprétation peut éventuellement porter sur le sens à donner au texte d'une Loi. Et, à défaut de manifestation claire, et pour interpréter le sens d' une clause ambiguë d'un acte authentique de vente, le juge peut se référer au compromis de vente sous seing privé pour connaître la commune intention des parties. (C. A. Limoges (ch. civ., 2e sect.), 22 juin 2005 - BICC n°671 du 15 novembre 2007). Selon le Code de la consommation, les contrats s'interprètent dans le sens le plus favorable au consommateur ou au non-professionnel


Source: https://www.dictionnaire-juridique.com/definition/interpreta...

Francois Boye
United States
Local time: 12:05
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Eliza Hall: For your example ("Pour DEGAGER quel est le sens de la disposition du contrat..."), we would say "determine" in EN (see, e.g., https://www.upcounsel.com/contract-interpretation).
10 hrs
  -> Here, it is the METHOD that is 'dégagée', not a 'disposition d'un contrat'

neutral  Daryo: not quite - you could see the whole process as "testing the meaning of a term" but the end result is that they "created / made / ..." their own interpretation of the term.// === "dégager" is the final result ===
13 hrs

disagree  AllegroTrans: Nothing is being tested; Courts don't conduct experimentation
3 days 9 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): -3
to release from responsibility


Explanation:
The word is from the following sample:

The method of global estimation or assessment, which is released from responsibility by the European Union court of justice, implies a simultaneous and synthetic comparison of the signs of conflict and product services which they design.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 3 days 6 hrs (2020-06-22 21:35:34 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

It's about a method of assessment and valuation. Since a method does not normally get 'released from responsibility', instead the method could be 'given', 'denoted' or 'tested' by the European court of justice.
("Cette méthode d'appréciation gobale dégagée par la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne inplique une comparaison simultanée et synthétique des signes en conflit et produits ou services qu'ils désignent.")

Lisa Rosengard
United Kingdom
Local time: 16:05
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Eliza Hall: Not what this means at all.
2 hrs

disagree  AllegroTrans: That is one meaning, but not the meaning in THIS source text
5 hrs

disagree  Daryo: what you call a "sample" IS NOT a "sample" of the real world use of the term by competent writers in a relevant context - THAT would be a convincing / relevant reference, not your own attempts at literal "translation by dictionaries".
8 hrs

neutral  SafeTex: Lisa: A method cannot be released from responsibility. Methods do not have responsibilites. You are doing yourself more harm than good by posting on Proz as some potential client may actually see your posts !!!
17 hrs
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