English translation: unobtrusive newly fabricated elements
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The context is the restoration of monumental archaeology.
"...de nombreuses restaurations ont été l'occasion de découvertes particulières, nous obligeant souvent à des adaptations et à la mise au point de prothèses discrètes ou au contraire de mise en valeur des éléments découverts."
What might the term "prosthesis" mean, which is the only definition I can find.
Explanation: The issue is the difference between restorations using newly fabricated elements, as opposed to restorations which reconstruct [a building] using the original elements recovered during the course of excavations.
Think of (say) a classical temple, with column drums, bases, capitals.
Some of these elements will be recovered through excavation, but not all.
The recovered bits are reconstructed as best they can be and are used as models for the fabrication of completely new reproductions of the originals.
These latter will be carefully made --using the same type of stone, perhaps with artificial weathering, etc.-- in order to make them as unobtrusive (discrète) as possible.