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surcote

English translation: storm surge

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
French term or phrase:surcote
English translation:storm surge
Entered by: Sheila Hardie
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17:17 Jan 28, 2004
French to English translations [PRO]
Science - Geology / oceanography
French term or phrase: surcote
Surcote:

Élévation du plan d'eau engendrée par une diminution de la pression atmosphérique, qui fait généralement monter le niveau marin de 30 cm mais peut exceptionnellement atteindre 1 m.

I am not sure what the term 'surcote' is in English, despite the above definition.

Any ideas would be most gratefully received!


TIA


Sheila
Sheila Hardie
Spain
Local time: 11:03
storm surge
Explanation:
Usually, but not always, it seems, associated with hurricanes:

From: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309041813/html/129-132.htm
"Storm surge.
Rise in sea level, particularly noticeable at the coast, due to wind-induced setup and barometric pressure effects.
Normally associated with the passage of atmospheric low-pressure systems (storms)."

Might give a lead into other terms which are more appropriate if you decide this isn't it :-)
Selected response from:

Charlie Bavington
Local time: 10:03
Grading comment
Many thanks to everyone here for their help! I am torn between awarding points to Nikki or to Charlie here, because they both gave 'storm surge' as the answer - as well as other very useful information. I checked with my client and they told me it was indeed 'storm surge' that was meant here. So, since Charlie gave the answer first, I think it only fair that the points go to him. Thanks again for the great answers.

Sheila
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5pressure setup
xxxBourth
5surcote/décote
Claire Chapman
3 +2superelevation
RHELLER
5 -1surge, storm surge
Nikki Scott-Despaigne
4sea rise above normal high tide due to low air pressure
xxxjerryk
4over the tidal bench mark
Claire Chapman
4surface elevation
Triangle Translations Int'l, LLC Daniel Bossut
3storm surge
Charlie Bavington
1oversize
ben baudoin


  

Answers


15 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5
oversize


Explanation:
!

ben baudoin
France
Local time: 11:03
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench
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21 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
sea rise above normal high tide due to low air pressure


Explanation:
You may need paraphrase here.

Tide Times
... In January 1953 a combination of high tide, tidal surge and low air pressure during
a storm caused the sea to rise 3 metres above normal high tide, the North ...
homepage.tinet.ie/~cronews/geog/tides/tide.html - 11k - Cached


xxxjerryk

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Vicky Papaprodromou
4 mins
  -> thanks!

neutral  ben baudoin: le probleme c'est qu'elle ne cherche pas à traduire la definition mais bel et bien à trouver l'equivalent francais du mot
38 mins

disagree  xxxBourth: Absolutely no need to paraphrase.
3 hrs
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46 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
surface elevation


Explanation:
Couldn't find a specific term, but "Low barometric pressure causes a regional increase in sea level"
also "low depression storms can cause the actual tide level (or ‘storm tide’) to be appreciably higher than predicted by tide tables"
"surface elevation" is used for ice blocks rizing from atmospheric pressure drop. (see link below)



    Reference: http://www.niwa.co.nz/news/recent#0083
    Reference: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2002AGUFM.C5...
Triangle Translations Int'l, LLC Daniel Bossut
United States
Local time: 05:03
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench
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46 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +2
superelevation


Explanation:
Bay Superelevation: Causes and Significance in Coastal Water Level Response ... to theCommittee on Engineering Implications of Changes in Relative Mean Sea Level. ...
www.nap.edu/openbook/0309037816/html/126-136.htm

four components are all additive and their sum represents the superelevation of storm ... A "eustatic" sea level change refers to a change in the mean water level ...
www.deh.gov.au/coasts/publications/ nswmanual/appendixb4.html

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 50 mins (2004-01-28 18:08:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

... DH = [ 2.30 * (Vs*Vs)/g ] * LOG (Ro/Ri). DH = Superelevation = Increase in Water Surface Elevation (m). Vs = Mean Velocity (meters per second). ...
www.computationalhydraulics.com/swmmqa405.html

RHELLER
United States
Local time: 03:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Triangle Translations Int'l, LLC Daniel Bossut: perfect
31 mins
  -> merci Monsieur :-)

agree  Claire Chapman: http://students.washington.edu/dfinlays/cv/documents/parsons...
44 mins
  -> merci Claire :-)
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
storm surge


Explanation:
Usually, but not always, it seems, associated with hurricanes:

From: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309041813/html/129-132.htm
"Storm surge.
Rise in sea level, particularly noticeable at the coast, due to wind-induced setup and barometric pressure effects.
Normally associated with the passage of atmospheric low-pressure systems (storms)."

Might give a lead into other terms which are more appropriate if you decide this isn't it :-)

Charlie Bavington
Local time: 10:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Many thanks to everyone here for their help! I am torn between awarding points to Nikki or to Charlie here, because they both gave 'storm surge' as the answer - as well as other very useful information. I checked with my client and they told me it was indeed 'storm surge' that was meant here. So, since Charlie gave the answer first, I think it only fair that the points go to him. Thanks again for the great answers.

Sheila

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  xxxBourth: A combination of surcôte and wind (or wave?) setup.
2 hrs

agree  Nikki Scott-Despaigne: This is the one I know. Also "surge" alone. See further findings below.
2 hrs
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
pressure setup


Explanation:
<<A. Pressure Setup. The change in water level due to the reduced pressure in the center of a storm system relative to the surface pressures outside the storm system. >>
[http://www.methaz.org/cdcm/terminol.html]

Cf. wind setup and wave setup.

<<Pressure setup - increase in water level due to the lower atmospheric pressure in the interior of a storm
Wind setup - increase in water level due to the force of the wind on the water.
Wave setup - increase in still water levels resulting from mass transport by breaking waves>>
[www.oas.org/en/cdmp/hazmap/taos/taos_meow.ppt]

<<Wave Setup
The increase in water level within the surf zone above mean still water level caused by the breaking action of waves.
Wind Setup
The increase in mean sea level caused by the "piling up" of water on the coastline by wind. >>
[http://www.mhl.nsw.gov.au/www/wave_glossary.html#WAVESETUP]

Cf. storm surge which combines 2 things

<<Storm Surge
The combined effects of atmospheric pressure setup ***and*** wind setup, causing a
localised increase in water elevation>>
[www.rodney.govt.nz/documents/Omaha CCMP/Glossary.pdf]


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-01-29 00:05:10 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Thanks to Nikki for support on this one, though it seems he agrees while disagreeing! For my part, I would point out that in the examples given defining \"surge\", there is reference to \"storm surge\", so it seems to be that the two, if in fact different, are difficult to dissociate.

The definition of \"pressure setup\" corresponds precisely to \"surcote\". However, \"surcote\" in French, and quite possibly \"surge\" in English, ARE used loosely :
<<Ces surcotes résultent de l\'action conjuguée, d\'une part de la baisse de la pression atmosphérique, qui tend à accroître le niveau de l\'eau ( en théorie de 1 cm pour une diminution de 1 hectopascal de la pression) , d\'autre part des vents de Sirocco et Bora, qui poussent l\'eau vers la lagune, provoquant des trains de vagues>>.

Other sites refer to a \"surcote\" of 2 to 3 metres, which, going by your def., would be impossible if only atmospheric effect were concerned. Wind and wave setup could easily attain those figures, however.

If yours is a document aimed at the general public, about yachting, say, then \"surge\" may be as precise as you need to be. If it is a scientific document, however, and \"surcote\" is used precisely in the sense of the definition you have given, then \"pressure setup\" is the word you need.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-01-29 00:06:25 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I should have said \"SINCE it is a scientific document\", as your mention \"Oceanography\" would appear to indicate.

xxxBourth
Local time: 11:03
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 142
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4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
surge, storm surge


Explanation:
Dépression = surcote
Anticyclone = décote

Cf. http://www.shom.fr/fr_page/fr_act_oceano/maree/encart1.htm


When referring to this phenomenon, the word “surge” is used to describe “cote”, and specifically in the case of low pressure systems, then a storm surge occurs, a “surcote”. Take a look at the detail of the effects of a hurricane, a worst case scenario.



http://www.weather.com/glossary/s.html

SURGE : The increase in sea water height from the level that would normally occur were there no storm. Although the most dramatic surges are associated with hurricanes, even smaller low pressure systems can cause a slight increase in the sea level if the wind and fetch is just right. It is estimated by subtracting the normal astronomic tide from the observed storm tide.



http://www.weather.com/encyclopedia/charts/tropical/saffirsc...

The Saffir-Simpson Damage-Potential Scale
This scale was developed in the early 1970s by Herbert Saffir, a consulting engineer in Coral Gables, Florida, and Dr. Robert Simpson, then Director of the National Hurricane Center. The scale is based primarily on wind speeds and includes estimates of barometric pressure and storm surge associated with each of the five categories.



http://www.weather.com/encyclopedia/tropical/effect.html
Surge : The storm surge is a rapid rise in the level of the water that moves onto land as the eye of the storm makes landfall. Generally speaking, the stronger the hurricane, the greater the storm surge.
As a hurricane approaches the coast, its winds drive water toward the shore. Once the edge of the storm reaches the shallow waters of the continental shelf, the water piles up. Winds of hurricane strength force the water onto the shore.
At first, the water level climbs slowly, but as the eye of the storm approaches, water rises rapidly. Wave after wave hits the coast as tons of moving water hammer away at any structure built on the coastline.
"A cubic yard of water weighs about 1700 pounds and it's almost incompressible," says John Hope, Tropical Coordinator at The Weather Channel. "You might just as well be hit with a solid object as to have this water smashing against a structure on a beach."
The surge is greater if a hurricane's track is perpendicular to the coastline, allowing the surge to build higher. The storm surge is also greater if the storm affects a bay or if it makes landfall at high tide. The greatest storm surge occurs to the right of where the eye makes landfall.



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-01-28 22:21:01 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Agree with Bourth. \"Surge, storm surge\" are the result of \"pressure setup\" and \"wind setup\". The term you are looking for would indeed appear to be \"pressure setup\", although I\'d have been happier to have had a greater number of sources on the web to confirm and/or be in my offfice to check my weather documents for you :

http://www.proz.com/kudoz/623174?login=y

http://www.methaz.org/cdcm/terminol.html
Storm Surge. Storm Surge is the term used for the departure of the water elevation from normal. In TAOS model outputs, storm surge includes all of the usual factors which cause a change in the water levels, such as Wind Setup, Pressure Setup, and Wave Setup. While the traditional definition of storm surge does not include astronomical tide, there are important non-linear interactions between astronomical tides and storm surges. Therefore, each TAOS storm run includes the timing of the storm, and water level outputs generated by TAOS include astronomical tide and the non-linear interaction of astronomical tide with the traditional storm effects such as wind, wave, and pressure setup.
Pressure Setup. The change in water level due to the reduced pressure in the center of a storm system relative to the surface pressures outside the storm system.

www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/downloads/is386unit_2.pdf

Pressure setup (rise in water surface from low atmospheric pressure).





--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-01-28 22:23:05 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Looking back to the question as posed, whilst I agree with Bourth\'s point, as expressed in the original, the description of \"surcote\" describes the result of pressure setup, so I would stick with \"surge\".

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-01-28 22:23:14 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Looking back to the question as posed, whilst I agree with Bourth\'s point, as expressed in the original, the description of \"surcote\" describes the result of pressure setup, so I would stick with \"surge\".

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2004-02-02 13:23:19 (GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Quite right that points go to CB as I was only adding further info in support of his suggestion!


    Reference: http://www.shom.fr/fr_page/fr_act_oceano/maree/encart1.htm
    Reference: http://www.weather.com
Nikki Scott-Despaigne
Local time: 11:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  xxxBourth: As your own and CB's definitions make clear, surge is a combination of pressure setup (surcôte) and wind setup.
20 mins
  -> Take your point of course, but looking at the definition posted by the asker, the term "surcote" corresponds to just that, the increase resulting from pressure setup, thus "surge".
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1 day 13 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
surcote/décote


Explanation:
for informational purposes only
SURCOTE
Subst. fém. Hauteur d'eau observée, au-delà de ce que l'on attendait à une heure donnée en fonction du coefficient de MARÉE du jour. La surcote est un phénomène assez courant, dû soit à de basses pressions atmosphériques, soit à de forts VENTS DE MER poussant l'eau vers la côte (voir AFFLUX), et le plus souvent à l'addition des deux. On la mesure en comparant la cote observée avec la cote calculée. Éviter l'orthographe fautive surcôte.

DÉCOTE
Subst. fém. Hauteur d'eau observée, en dessous de ce que l'on attendait, à une heure donnée, en fonction du coefficient de marée du jour. La décote est généralement due à de hautes pressions atmosphériques (un ANTICYCLONE particulièrement marqué), et quelquefois à un fort vent de terre qui est, simultanément, générateur d'UPWELLING. Antonyme : SURCOTE. La décote, n'ayant que très peu d'inconvénients, est assez mal étudiée.



    Reference: http://www.oceano.org/io/cyberdoc/voca/S.html
    Reference: http://www.oceano.org/io/cyberdoc/voca/D.html
Claire Chapman
Local time: 05:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
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1 day 13 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
over the tidal bench mark


Explanation:
Bench mark, tidal: A BENCH MARK whose ELEVATION has been determined with respect to MEAN SEA LEVEL at a nearby tide gauge; the tidal bench mark is used as reference for that tide gauge.




    Reference: http://www.csc.noaa.gov/text/glossary.html
Claire Chapman
Local time: 05:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
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