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|French to English translations [PRO]|
Law/Patents - Law (general)
|French term or phrase: Acte extrajudiciaire|
|The temptation to call this "extrajudicial ..." is great (and at least one glossary provides such a translation), however it would be incorrect. The following is a French definition for extrajudiciaire taken from www.juritravail.com/lexique/Extrajudiciaire.html (2008) and is a far cry from the ways in which extrajudicial (execution, confession, etc.) are described in Blacks.|
Qualificatif donné à l'acte d'un officier ministériel lorsqu'il n'est pas dressé dans le cadre d'une procédure actuellement pendante devant une juridiction . Il en est ainsi par exemple de la signification par laquelle le bailleur fait notifier par un huissier à son locataire qu'il lui délivre congé. Il en est ainsi encore de la signification de la cession de créance ou de la cession de parts d'une société à responsabilité limitée. L'acte par lequel un greffier reçoit une renonciation à succession constitue aussi un acte extra-judiciaire.
So... what is it? Thoughts anyone? TIA
4 mins confidence: peer agreement (net): -1 4 hrs confidence: 7 hrs confidence: peer agreement (net): +2
It's a distinction in French and other civil law countries that isn't central to common law practice, hence the difficulty finding an English term with thousands of hits. The common English equivalent in international practice is 'extrajudicial document', see, e.g. the following, from the Hague Conference on International Law
The "SUMMARY OF THE DOCUMENT TO BE SERVED" distinguishes between a "JUDICIAL DOCUMENT" and an "EXTRAJUDICIAL DOCUMENT" .
Any document relating to litigation, including summary proceedings or uncontested proceedings, e.g. summons, judgment, order or application, is regarded as a judicial document. Any other legal document is to be classified as an extrajudicial document.
If the document to be sent or served is a judicial document, the capitals "EXTRAJUDICIAL DOCUMENT" should be deleted, and vice versa.
Extrajudicial document gets 863 Ghits, by the way.
Now, what about Andrew Bruch's discomfort with the term 'extrajudicial' (he cites Black's Law Dictionary). Black's gives this definition: "That which is done, given , or effected outside the course of regular judicial proceedings. Not founded upon, or unconnected with, the action of a court of law, as e.g. extrajudicial evidence, or an extrajudicial oath." There is no implication here of wrongdoing, or unlawful action. It just means 'outside of judicial proceedings'. Cornu gives the same definition for 'extrajudiciaire': "Qui a lieu en dehors d'une instance en justice (en dehors de toute instance, plus rarement en dehors d'une instance determinee. V. *acte extrajudiciaire". The definition cited by Andrew in French, found at www.juritravail.com/lexique/Extrajudiciaire.html , is the same, as it refers to a document "lorsqu'il n'est pas dressé dans le cadre d'une procédure actuellement pendante devant une juridiction". Andrew says that this definition is a far cry from how 'extrajudicial' is used in Black's, in 'extrajudicial execution' and 'extrajudicial confession'. My Black's (6th edition) doesn't have 'extrajudicial execution', but for 'extrajudicial confession' it gives the following: "[confessions] made by the party out of court, or to any person, official or otherwise, when made not in the course of a judicial examination or investigation'. In other words, same definition as the one he cites from juritravail, same definition as in Cornu, and same definition as in the entry for 'extrajudicial' alone in Black's.
In some cases it may be more appropriate to say 'extrajudicial notice' or 'extrajudicial instrument' but it's probably not appropriate to translate 'acte' by 'act' here, since the French term refers to a document, not an action.
|Attorney DC Bar|
Local time: 12:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 205
|Notes to answerer|
|Asker: Good research - but my objection still stands: the broad scope of extrajudicial that you quote does not require a court officer or someone with state capacities such as a notary, added to which, in discussing the term with several attorneys (one of whom specializes in international law) they all professed either not to understand extrajudicial in the sense we have here. |