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Polarité

English translation: See explanation

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
French term or phrase:Polarité
English translation:See explanation
Entered by: Rosemary Harvey
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16:03 Nov 2, 2007
French to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general) / Cough medication trial
French term or phrase: Polarité
I am revising a translation on a cough medicine trial and I am unsure about the meaning of the following phrase:

"Les médicaments sans polarité pour l'arbre trachéo-bronchique étaient autorisés."

The translator has written:

"Conventional medicines for the tracheobronchial tree were allowed."

I'm not sure where 'conventional' has come from. Is this what it means?

I'd be grateful for any help.
Rosemary Harvey
Local time: 00:33
affinity vs biodistribution
Explanation:
A bit of a guess based on the context. Of couse, non-polar implies hydophobic vs polar being hydrophilic, but maybe in this case affinity could be substitued. Or put otherwise, one could say, "drugs the biodistreibution of which did not include the tracheobronchial tree were allowed."
Selected response from:

briant
Local time: 18:33
Grading comment
Thank you for your answer. I actually wanted to choose all the answers as they all helped me to understand the concept, but in the end I opted for 'drugs that do not act on...' which is probably closest to your example sentences.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4Non-polar medicationCarmen Archouniani
3 +1non locally acting (ie centrally acting)
Michael Barnett
4Polarity (linked to pulmonary absorption rate)
Drmanu49
2 +1affinity vs biodistributionbriant
3non-charged/non-polarliz askew


Discussion entries: 9





  

Answers



19 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
non-charged/non-polar


Explanation:
for

sans polarité

Hope this helps:


http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:2_8a_ZWxyZEJ:www.ilo.org/...

De nombreux facteurs exercent une influence sur le taux d’éli-
mination des toxiques et de leurs métabolites:
les propriétés physico-chimiques, en particulier le coefficient de
partage de Nernst (P), la constante de dissociation (pKa), la
polarité, la structure moléculaire, la forme et le poids molécu-
laire;
le niveau d’exposition, le temps d’élimination après exposition;
la voie d’entrée;
la distribution dans les compartiments corporels, qui diffèrent
par leur taux d’échange avec le sang et leur circulation san-
guine;
le taux de biotransformation des toxiques lipophiles en métabo-
lites plus hydrophiles;
l’état de santé général de l’organisme et, spécialement, des
organes excréteurs (poumons, reins, tractus gastro-intestinal,
peau, etc.);
la présence d’autres toxiques pouvant perturber l’élimination
http://www.siteadvisor.com/sites/wiley.com?ref=safesearch&af...
1. physical, chemical, and physico-chemical properties; ...... have toxic persistent metabolites, but leaves some persistent polar metabolites that ...
doi.wiley.com/10.1002/352760877X.ch12 - Similar pages
http://www.siteadvisor.com/sites/nap.edu?ref=safesearch&aff_...
Appendix B: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Pesticides ... extent of systemic absorption depends on the physical and chemical properties of the compound, ...
books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10927&page=168 - 39k - Cached - Similar pages
="Z-INDEX: 999; POSITION: absolute" onmouseout=shut(event) height=16 src="siteadvisor:green.gif" width=16 border=0http://www.siteadvisor.com/sites/springerlink.com?ref=safese...
or converted to a toxic active metabolite. Dynamic phase ..... Physical-chemical properties, like physical state, solubility, octanol-water parti- ...
www.springerlink.com/index/g5523734610x7528.pdf - Similar pages
http://www.siteadvisor.com/sites/accessmedicine.com?ref=safe...
A chemical or toxic asphyxiant (carbon monoxide, cyanide, acrylonitrile, .... again dependent in part on first-pass metabolism and polarity. ...
www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=2740728 - Similar pages

Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition by Des W. Connell (CRC) addresses such topics as polarity, partition behavior, fugacity, and solubility as well as the basic chemistry of compounds and processes in the environment. The text deals first with the basic properties of chemicals in terms of polarity, water solubility, and vapor pressure, followed by chapters on environmental transformations and toxicity. Expanding on the fundamentals presented, the book then describes contaminants in the environment and pollution processes in the air, water and soil environments. The second edition incorporates new advances in the field since 1997, including new material on toxic metals, atmospheric pollution, radionuclides, acid drainage water, and risk assessment.

http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:LOOc45pIqj4J:www.patentst...


The principle is similar for iontohydrokinesis which may be used to deliver uncharged, non-polar molecules of medication. In iontohydrokinesis, water, which has naturally charged molecules and containing noncharged or non-polar molecules of medication, is transported into the tissue of a patient. By subjecting the mixture to an electrical field, the water molecules will carry the uncharged particles with them as they flow from one pole towards the other.




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Note added at 20 mins (2007-11-02 16:23:52 GMT)
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Sorry, I meant

uncharged

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 25 mins (2007-11-02 16:28:50 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Here's another ref:

L'avis du rédacteur :
Cette étude, très bien menée dans sa démarche scientifique, montre que les éosinophiles des voies aériennes stimulent les lymphocytes CD4 pour leur faire synthétiser des cytokines pro-inflammatoires (IL4, IL5, IL 13), sans stimuler la synthèse d’interféron gamma, cytokine inhibant les réactions TH2.

Ces éosinophiles se comportent donc comme des cellules présentatrices d’antigène, qui vont pouvoir amplifier l’expansion lymphocytaire TH2, aboutissant elle-même à une réponse pro-inflammatoire, tel un cercle vicieux.

Les éosinophiles semblent donc avoir une double polarité, à la fois cellules immunes à part entière et cellules effectrices de l’inflammation, rendant compte de leur rôle majeur dans l’inflammation allergique.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 29 mins (2007-11-02 16:33:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

So, it =

medication without positive or negative poles

from the reference I gave in the answer's box.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 34 mins (2007-11-02 16:38:31 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Medicine/medication without polar activity:

Bacteroides fragilis toxin exhibits polar activity on monolayers ... Bacteroides fragilis toxin exhibits polar activity on monolayers of human ... Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, ...
www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=175507 - Similar pages


liz askew
United Kingdom
Local time: 00:33
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 2124
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thanks for all this detail. I hadn't thought of uncharged. I see that there are quite a few hits for 'uncharged drugs' so I'll do a bit more research to see if they seem reliable.

Asker: Although I didn't choose this answer in the end, it was very useful and helped me to start to get to grips with the meaning. Thanks.

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54 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5 peer agreement (net): +1
affinity vs biodistribution


Explanation:
A bit of a guess based on the context. Of couse, non-polar implies hydophobic vs polar being hydrophilic, but maybe in this case affinity could be substitued. Or put otherwise, one could say, "drugs the biodistreibution of which did not include the tracheobronchial tree were allowed."

Example sentence(s):
  • Drug A has no affinity for the heart.
  • Drug A's biodistribution does not include the heart.
briant
Local time: 18:33
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Thank you for your answer. I actually wanted to choose all the answers as they all helped me to understand the concept, but in the end I opted for 'drugs that do not act on...' which is probably closest to your example sentences.
Notes to answerer
Asker: Looking at your answer, I'm wondering if it would acceptable to say, "drugs that did not act on the tracheobronchial tree were allowed." That's what your example sentences seem to be pointing towards, and this would certainly make sense within my document.


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Eric Bullington: I agree with affinity. My guess is that the source text was poorly written. What the author(s) meant was that the drugs were non-polar, and as a result, they had no affinity for the tracheobronchial tree. Ergo, "drugs with no affinity for...".
8 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Polarity (linked to pulmonary absorption rate)


Explanation:
The polarity of salbutamol. lung absorption as assessed by plasma C ..... in the bronchial tree with only minimal systemic. absorption. ...
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/bjcp/1996/00000042/00000... - Pages similaires - À noter

Pulmonary absorption rate and bioavailability of drugs in vivo in ...
37 Æ 6% to the bronchial tree, 12 Æ 4% to the lung. parenchyma ...... tended to be more polar than oral drugs, corre-. sponding to the less lipophilic ...
doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jps.10386

Drmanu49
France
Local time: 01:33
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 4009
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2 days2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
non locally acting (ie centrally acting)


Explanation:
This is a particularly tough question because not only does it require a familiarity with the subject material but also the source language term is somewhat vague.

I think the meaning of "polarite" in this context has nothing to do with the chemical characteristic of the drug in the sense of charge and its consequent property of being either hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Rather, "polarite" refers to the mode of action of the drug as explained below.

Cough medicines, as well as many other classes of drugs can be classified by their mode of action. Some drugs work LOCALLY, that is directly on the tissues affected and some work CENTRALLY, that is on remote tissues and thus exert their therapeutic effect indirectly.
An example of a locally acting drug would be beclomethasone, which acts directly on bronchial tubes and an example of a centrally acting drug would be diphenhydramine which acts on the brain to cause sedation and reduced mucous secretion.

"Traditional antitussives have a drying effect on the mucous
membranes and can increase the viscosity of respiratory
tract secretions. Because they affect centers in the
brain, these antitussives are associated with CNS adverse
effects, including drowsiness and sedation. Their drying
effect can lead to nausea, constipation, and complaints of
dry mouth. The locally acting antitussives are associated
with gastrointestinal (GI) upset, headache, feelings of
congestion, and sometimes dizziness."


"cough reflex. Because they are centrally acting, they are. not the drugs of choice for anyone who has a ... The locally acting antitussives are associated ..."

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Note added at 2 days3 hrs (2007-11-04 19:14:38 GMT)
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Additional comment:
The term "affinity" is somewhat related to this topic, but in medical use, refers specifically to the ability of a drug to bind to a particular site or receptor. There is no connotation of the concept of "polarity", which in this instance refers not to electrical charge, but to the idea of the drug working "here" rather than "there".

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Note added at 2 days10 hrs (2007-11-05 02:15:04 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Further additional comment:
BTW, the centrally acting cough medicines have been around a long time and the locally acting ones are more recent. One could say, in this case, that the centrally acting drugs are the "conventional" cough medicines. This is obviously how the translator got around this technical issue, but he has obviously lost a lot of flavour in the process.


    Reference: http://connection.lww.com/Products/karch3e/documents/pdf/Kar...
Michael Barnett
Local time: 19:33
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 681

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Istvan Nagy
3 hrs
  -> Thanks Istvan!
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